Diversity of Organism-Wide and Organ-Specific Endothelial Cells

AbstractPurpose of ReviewEndothelial cells are of great importance in many types of diseases including the coronary artery diseases in heart and stroke in brain. In this review, we explore the heterogeneity among endothelial cells from an organism-wide, organ-specific, and healthy versus disease perspective.Recent FindingsRecent studies addressing the cellular heterogeneity between arterial versus venous endothelial cells (ECs) have revealed that arterial ECs have tighter junctions, a decreased immune response, anticoagulant properties while veins have both anticoagulant and procoagulant properties. Blood and lymphatic ECs are quite distinct from each other as well, with the lymphatic ECs being more involved in the immune response and lymphangiogenesis while blood vessel ECs being involved in angiogenesis and maintenance of perfusion throughout the body. ECs from various organs such as the heart, the lung, and especially the brain are quite heterogeneous and provide barriers that prevent small particles to pass through the endothelium when compared with the endothelium of the liver and the kidney that are quite porous. The heart ECs have higher angiogenesis and metabolic rates (oxidation and glycolysis) than lung, liver, and kidney ECs. Ex vivo liver and kidney ECs grow at a moderate pace, while the lung and brain ECs grow very slowly. ECs from within a tumor have fenestrae and large intracellular gaps and junctions leading to increased permeability and tumor cell overgrowth....
Source: Current Cardiology Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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In this study, we intravenously administrated the young mitochondria into aged mice to evaluate whether energy production increase in aged tissues or age-related behaviors improved after the mitochondrial transplantation. The results showed that heterozygous mitochondrial DNA of both aged and young mouse coexisted in tissues of aged mice after mitochondrial administration, and meanwhile, ATP content in tissues increased while reactive oxygen species (ROS) level reduced. Besides, the mitotherapy significantly improved cognitive and motor performance of aged mice. Our study, at the first report in aged animals, not only prov...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study evaluates the results of perfusion analysis with two established software solutions in a large series of patients with different diseases when a highly standardized processing workflow is ensured. METHODS: Multicenter data of 260 patients (80 with brain tumors, 124 with cerebrovascular disease and 56 with dementia examined with the same MR protocol) were analyzed. Raw data sets were processed with two software suites: Olea sphere and NordicICE. Group differences were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Perfusion metrics were significantly different for all examined diseases in the ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research
Neuroradiology has seen many advances in the past few years, placing the radiologist in a crucial role. Large trials have demonstrated the efficacy of thrombectomy for large vessel occlusions in stroke, emphasizing the importance of triaging patients for intervention. Genomics has become central to the classification of brain neoplasms, culminating in the 2016 World Health Organization classification of brain tumors. Advanced imaging techniques, such as functional MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, have added value in tumor diagnosis, surgical planning, and surveillance.
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Preface Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs
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Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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