Pneumococcal vaccines are effective -- But new strategies needed to reduce meningitis

(Wolters Kluwer Health) Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been highly effective in reducing pneumonia and other invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. But rates of meningitis have shown little change, as pneumococcal strains not targeted by PCVs emerge as more important causes of meningitis, reports a paper in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, the official journal of The European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Conclusions: Because virtually all cases of pneumococcal meningitis lead to either permanent neurologic sequelae or death, it would be well worth the effort to develop a new vaccine capable of preventing pneumococcal meningitis regardless of capsular type. Such a vaccine would need to protect against colonization with most, if not all, pneumococci.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Conclusion. This study shows that macrolide resistance among S. pneumoniae isolated in Tunisia is mainly related to target site modification. Our observations demonstrate a high degree of genetic diversity and capsular types among strains resistant to macrolides. PMID: 32159507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We detected a small risk of incidental pneumonia associated with varicella vaccine in the 6th week after immunization. There was no increase in the risk of other pre-specified adverse events. PMID: 32046891 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
l;a E Abstract BACKGROUND: Studies on the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) on mortality, especially among preschoolers are scarce. We aimed to assess time trend mortality from lower respiratory infections (LRI), taken as a proxy of pneumonia, from 1990 to 2017. METHODS: This ecological study assessed the mortality rate among Brazilians under-five before and after the national PCV-10 implementation in 2010. Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) and diarrheal diseases (DD) were included as a "positive and negative controls", respectively. Trend analysis was performed through Global Burden of Dis...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusion: The economic burden of pneumococcal infections seems to be substantial in Tunisia. The estimated costs does not reflect the real costs of this infection. Cost-effectiveness studies would be helpful to inform policy-makers to take appropriate decisions. PMID: 32003444 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
Abstract Haemophilus influenzae remains a common cause of illness in children worldwide. H. influenzae type b is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children before introduction of vaccination and is a common cause of pneumonia, epiglottis and septic arthritis. Since the implementation of the Hib conjugate vaccine, the non-typeable H. influenzae has rapidly decreased in respiratory and invasive infections in children and adults. However, the rate of antibiotic resistance of H. influenzae varies with region and period and is usually on the rise. In this review, typing of H. influenzae, virulence factors an...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Authors: Zintgraff J, Fossati S, Pereira CS, Veliz O, Regueira M, Moscoloni MA, Irazu L, Lara C, Napoli D, Argentina Spn Working Group Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of severe invasive disease associated with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. To identify the serotypes most commonly associated with infection in adults in Argentina, 791 pneumococcal isolates from 56 hospitals belonging to 16 provinces and Buenos Aires city were serotyped. The isolates were submitted as part of a National Surveillance Program for invasive pneumococcal disease in adults, which started in 2013. Serotypes 3, 8, ...
Source: Revista Argentina de Microbiologia - Category: Microbiology Tags: Rev Argent Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Most of the available data on invasive pneumococcal disease in Latin America are derived from laboratory-based surveillance systems. There is a lack of epidemiological data on the disease severity and mortality from hospitalized patients with pneumococcal infection. METHODS: In this hospital-based retrospective historical series of hospitalized children with laboratory-confirmed IPD, we evaluated changes in disease episodes, in-hospital fatality rates, and need for intensive care unit admission after the inclusion of PCV10 in the Brazilian vaccination schedule. Invasive pneumococcal strai...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusion: Although pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes 19A, 3, 19F and 7F remain frequent causes of IPD, non-vaccine serotypes are emerging. Our data support vancomycin treatment for children with pneumococcal meningitis given 11% of our isolates were not susceptible to ceftriaxone. It is important to consider underlying conditions predisposing to IPD in a population with high rates of pneumococcal vaccination.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Conclusion: According to WHO-recommended thresholds for interpreting cost-effectiveness, introduction of PCV-13 for children under 5 years in the Islamic Republic of Iran would be cost-effective. PMID: 31774134 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
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