Neurological Complications of Measles (Rubeola)

AbstractPurpose of ReviewOwing to vaccine hesitancy, there has been a resurgence of measles infections in developed countries. Practitioners can expect to see an increase in patients with neurologic complications of measles. These devastating disorders include primary measles encephalitis, acute post measles encephalitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE).Recent FindingsAlthough there are many unanswered questions regarding the neurologic complications of measles, recent advances have led to better understanding of the mechanism of the spread of measles within the nervous system, particularly the disruption of F protein function, which raises the possibility of treatment with fusion-inhibiting molecules.SummaryMeasles and its neurological complications are preventable and must be prevented. Neurologists must educate other clinicians and the public regarding the consequences of inadequate herd immunity to measles. More effective treatments for SSPE and MIBE may be available in the near future, but currently these remain lethal diseases.
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Existing evidence on the safety and effectiveness of MMR/MMRV vaccines support their use for mass immunisation. Campaigns aimed at global eradication should assess epidemiological and socioeconomic situations of the countries as well as the capacity to achieve high vaccination coverage. More evidence is needed to assess whether the protective effect of MMR/MMRV could wane with time since immunisation. PMID: 32309885 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
New evidence published in the Cochrane Library today finds MMR, MMRV and MMR+V vaccines are effective and that they are not associated with increased risk of autism. Measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (also known as chickenpox) are infectious diseases caused by viruses. They are most common in children and young adults, and can lead to potentially fatal illnesses, disabilities and death. Measles remains one of the leading causes of childhood death around the globe. Rubella is also dangerous for pregnant women, as it can cause miscarriage or harm to unborn babies. The MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) is a combined...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news
With a planned annual capacity of 585 million, the project proposed to make pentavalent, or five-in-one, combination vaccine, BCG vaccine, and vaccines to prevent measles, hepatitis B, human rabies, Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the first phase, which was to be commissioned by 2010.
Source: The Economic Times - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
AbstractThe role of vaccination in the development of Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) is controversial, although cases of GBS have been reported following a wide range of vaccines. A nested case–control study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015 in three Chinese cities. Four controls were matched to a case by gender, age, address and index date. An independent expert committee validated the diagnoses of cases and controls according to the Brighton Collaboration GBS case definition. Data on vaccinations were obtained from computerized vaccination records. Causal relations were assessed by conditi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsConsanguineous marriages account for a genetic “founder effect.” SCID is a pediatric emergency that dictates immediate precautions and curative treatment with HSCT. Due to lack of newborn screening for SCID within the Palestinian population, most patients in this cohort were diagnosed upon clinical symptoms, which led to a delayed diagnosis, harmful administration of contra-indicated live vaccines, delay in HSCT, and poor outcome.
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Purpose of review Studying primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) provides insights into human antiviral immunity in the natural infectious environment. This review describes new PIDs with genetic defects that impair innate antiviral responses. Recent findings New genetic defects in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway include IFNAR1 deficiency, which causes uncontrolled infections with measles-mumps-rubella or yellow fever vaccines, and possibly also cytomegalovirus (CMV); and IRF9 deficiency, which results in influenza virus susceptibility. Genetic defects in several pattern recognition receptors include MDA5 deficienc...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: ALLERGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Jordan S. Orange Source Type: research
athieu Measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide among vaccine preventable diseases. Recent decline in vaccination coverage resulted in re-emergence of measles outbreaks. Measles virus (MeV) infection causes an acute systemic disease, associated in certain cases with central nervous system (CNS) infection leading to lethal neurological disease. Early following MeV infection some patients develop acute post-infectious measles encephalitis (APME), which is not associated with direct infection of the brain. MeV can also infect the CNS and cause sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in immuno...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
(This post has been updated with relevant recent information.) The United States was declared free from ongoing measles transmission in 2000. But we may be at risk for joining the UK Greece, Albania, and the Czech Republic, four countries recently stripped of measles elimination status by the World Health Organization. Since the beginning of 2019, more than 1,234 measles cases have been reported in 31 states, with active outbreaks in upstate New York and El Paso, Texas. New York has just declared the end of its yearlong outbreak, which required a massive public health response to control. Minnesota had a major measles outb...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Prevention Travel health Source Type: blogs
As a medical student, the place I dreaded most was the ward at the children’s hospital where they kept the chronic ventilator patients. Unlike the other floors, where there was shouting and laughter and tears, and all the commotion and turbulence of youth, here it was dark and lifeless and eerie, with no sound except the hum of the ventilators, and the rattle of air being forced through plastic tubes. It was a place of failure and defeat, the desolate aftermath of some vast and tragic battle. An unexpected aftermath of measles My patient was a teenager who had been in a coma for years. His limbs had stubbornly twiste...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children's Health Infectious diseases Men's Health Vaccines Women's Health Source Type: blogs
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