Various Tastes of Sugar: The Potential of Glycosylation in Targeting and Modulating Human Immunity via C-Type Lectin Receptors
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are important in several immune regulatory processes. These receptors recognize glycans expressed by host cells or by pathogens. Whereas pathogens are recognized through their glycans, which leads to protective immunity, aberrant cellular glycans are now increasingly recognized as disease-driving factors in cancer, auto-immunity, and allergy. The vast variety of glycan structures translates into a wide spectrum of effects on the immune system ranging from immune suppression to hyper-inflammatory responses. CLRs have distinct expression patterns on antigen presenting cells (APCs) controlling their role in immunity. CLRs can also be exploited to selectively target specific APCs, modulate immune responses and enhance antigen presentation. Here we will discuss the role of glycans and their receptors in immunity as well as potential strategies for immune modulation. A special focus will be given to different dendritic cell subsets as these APCs are crucial orchestrators of immune responses in infections, cancer, auto-immunity and allergies. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential use of nanoscale lipid bi-layer structures (liposomes) in targeted immunotherapy.
AbstractNeuropathic pain (NeP) is an intractable pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system. NeP is often challenging to manage because most of the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent investigations in the field of autoimmune neurology have demonstrated that specific autoantibodies against antigens in the somatosensory pathway can cause NeP. Detection of pathogenic autoantibodies in NeP adds to the understanding of the mechanism of pain, which might aid in the development of novel immunotherapies. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel NeP ‐related autoantibodies to improve the man...
Abstract Metals are essential components in all forms of life required for the function of nearly half of all enzymes and are critically involved in virtually all fundamental biological processes. Especially, the transition metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) are crucial micronutrients known to play vital roles in metabolism as well due to their unique redox properties. Metals carry out three major functions within metalloproteins: to provide structural support, to serve as enzymatic cofactors, and to mediate electron transportation. Metal ions are also involved in...
CONCLUSIONS: Severe SE, not outcomes, was the most decisive attribute determining future HCRCT participation. Particular attention should be paid to providing clear information, in particular on severe SE, to potential participants. Immunotherapy would appear to be the best HCRCT candidate for both PLWH and physicians. However, if the risk of cancer could be avoided, gene therapy would become the preferred strategy for the latter and the second choice for the former. PMID: 32077248 [PubMed - in process]
This study assesses the clinical efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) based immunotherapy of PC.
ConclusionOur study does not support a causal effect of allergic disease on the risk of breast or prostate cancer. Future studies may be conducted to focus on understanding the causal role of allergic disease in cancer prognosis or drug responses (e.g., immunotherapy).
Roche's immunotherapy Tecentriq failed a late-stage clinical trial in a form of urothelial cancer, the Swiss drugmaker said on Friday.Reuters Health Information
CONCLUSION: Regulatory T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer and allergies, and thus represent a therapeutic target. PMID: 31970443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
B cells and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) play key roles in promoting cancer immunotherapy responses, according to results from three studies published in Nature.Reuters Health Information
Publication date: March 2020Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 123Author(s): Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh, Safa Tahmasebi, Seyyed Shamsadin AthariAbstractDespite the current advancements, cancer treatment approaches have limitations restricting their cure rate. Immunotherapy techniques are among novel and promising cancer therapeutic approaches. Therapeutic antibodies and adoptive cell therapy (ACT) are the main branches of immunotherapy. T lymphocytes and genetically engineered cells are among important cells which can be used in ACT. This review has focused on recent advances in engineered cell-based immunotherap...
British drugmaker AstraZeneca Plc said on Friday its immunotherapy cancer treatment Imfinzi (durvalumab) has been granted a speedy review by the U.S. medicines watchdog for the treatment of a particularly aggressive type of lung cancer.Reuters Health Information