Geography, age and anemia shape childhood vaccine responses in Sub-Saharan Africa

(American Association for the Advancement of Science) Vaccine responses in the developing immune systems of children may depend on factors such as age, location and anemia status, according to a study comparing samples from 1,119 Dutch children to 171 children in sub-Saharan Africa who took part in a malaria vaccine trial.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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by Lucy S. Tusting, Peter W. Gething, Harry S. Gibson, Brian Greenwood, Jakob Knudsen, Steve W. Lindsay, Samir Bhatt BackgroundHousing is essential to human well-being but neglected in global health. Today, housing in Africa is rapidly improving alongside economic development, creating an urgent need to understand how these changes can benefit health. We hypothesised that improved housing is associated with better health in children living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of housing conditions relative to a range of child health outcomes in SSA. Methods and findingsCross-sectional data w...
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Children from low- and middle-income countries, where there is a high incidence of infectious disease, have the greatest need for the protection afforded by vaccination, but vaccines often show reduced efficacy in these populations. An improved understanding of how age, infection, nutrition, and genetics influence immune ontogeny and function is key to informing vaccine design for this at-risk population. We sought to identify factors that shape immune development in children under 5 years of age from Tanzania and Mozambique by detailed immunophenotyping of longitudinal blood samples collected during the RTS,S malaria vacc...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Resources Source Type: research
This study provides strong evidence that following a healthy lifestyle can substantially extend the years a person lives disease-free." Commentary on Recent Evidence for Cognitive Decline to Precede Amyloid Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/01/commentary-on-recent-evidence-for-cognitive-decline-to-precede-amyloid-aggregation-in-alzheimers-disease/ I can't say that I think the data presented in the research noted here merits quite the degree of the attention that it has been given in the popular science press. It is interesting, but not compelling if its role...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion and Future Directions The ECM model has produced a wealth of information on CM pathogenesis in mice with the aim to find an adjunctive therapy for HCM but its validity has been questioned. However, several investigators have provided a critical and evidence-based defense of this model (17, 128–131) and from knowledge gained from it, numerous laboratories have tested preclinical therapeutic interventions. Many have demonstrated efficacy at blocking the development of ECM but disappointingly, in a majority of cases, this was only found when administered before or early post infection and prior to the onset ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions Nucleoside hydrolases are vital enzymes for the replication of Leishmania, conserved phylogenetic marker of the genus and strong-specific immunogens. We demonstrated that NH36 is an excellent target for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Searching for the most immunogenic fraction of promastigotes of Leishmania we described the FML antigen of L. (L.) donovani, that has as its main component, the NH36 Nucleoside hydrolase. We developed second–generation vaccines with the FML and the NH36 native antigens, and with the NH36 recombinant protein. In addition, we obtained a third generation vaccine based ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Jeffrey G. Shaffer1*, Frances J. Mather1, Mamadou Wele2, Jian Li1, Cheick Oumar Tangara2, Yaya Kassogue2, Sudesh K. Srivastav1, Oumar Thiero2, Mahamadou Diakite2, Modibo Sangare2, Djeneba Dabitao2, Mahamoudou Toure2, Abdoulaye A. Djimde2, Sekou Traore2, Brehima Diakite2, Mamadou B. Coulibaly2, Yaozhong Liu1, Michelle Lacey3, John J. Lefante1, Ousmane Koita2, John S. Schieffelin4, Donald J. Krogstad1 and Seydou O. Doumbia2 1Department of Global Biostatistics and Data Science, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States 2Faculty of Medicine and Odontostomatology, Un...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In conclusion, we hope that this review brings about a new and more in-depth understanding of the part that Leishmania exosomes and various infectious agents play in the context of host-parasite interactions, with a particular focus on the establishment of infection. Future research in this field of investigations is critical for the development of new vaccine and diagnostic tools. Author Contributions The first draft was done by MO. AF and GD added new information. Funding Research in MO laboratory is supported by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (grant number: PJT-159765) and the Natural Sciences and Enginee...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Plasmodium vivax, an intracellular protozoan, causes malaria which is characterized by fever, anemia, respiratory distress, liver and spleen enlargement. In spite of attempts to design an efficient vaccine, there is not a vaccine against P. vivax. Notable advances have recently achieved in the development of malaria vaccines targeting the surface antigens such as Apical Membrane Antigens (AMA)-1. AMA-1 is a micronemal protein synthesized during the erythrocyte-stage of Plasmodium species and plays a significant role in the invasion process of the parasite into host cells. P. vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1) can ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Abstract Plasmodium falciparum is the etiological agent of malaria tropica, the leading cause of death due to a vector-borne infectious disease, claiming 0.5 million lives every year. The single-cell eukaryote undergoes a complex life cycle and is an obligate intracellular parasite of hepatocytes (clinically silent) and erythrocytes (disease causing). An infection can progress to a wide range of pathologies, including severe anemia and cerebral malaria, which can lead to death. P. falciparum repeatedly replicates over the course of 48h inside erythrocytes, resulting in exponential growth and rapid disease progress...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
​BY GREGORY TAYLOR, DO; DAWN ZELENKA-JOSHOWITZ, DO; &ANDREW TAECKER, DOA 34-year-old man presented with intermittent fever and body aches for 10 days. He had been visiting family in India, and the symptoms began when he returned home. His fever had been as high as 104°F, and he was experiencing nausea, two episodes of bilious emesis, body aches, nonspecific abdominal pain, and multiple episodes of watery, nonbloody diarrhea.He said he knew of no tuberculosis exposure or ill contacts, and he was current on his routine influenza and hepatitis A vaccines. His temperature was 101.4°F (he had taken acetaminophen t...
Source: The Case Files - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research
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