Clinical implications of cancer stem cells in digestive cancers: acquisition of stemness and prognostic impact

AbstractDigestive system cancers are the most frequent cancers worldwide and often associated with poor prognosis because of their invasive and metastatic characteristics. Recent studies have found that the plasticity of cancer cells can impart cancer stem-like properties via the epithelial –mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cancer stem-like properties such as tumor initiation are integral to the formation of metastasis, which is the main cause of poor prognosis. Numerous markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in many types of cancer. Therefore, CSCs, via their stem cel l-like functions, may play an important role in prognosis after surgery. While several reports have described prognostic analysis using CSC markers, few reviews have summarized CSCs and their association with prognosis. Herein, we review the prognostic potential of eight CSC markers, CD133, CD44, CD 90, ALDH1A1, EPCAM, SOX2, SOX9, and LGR5, in digestive cancers including those of the pancreas, colon, liver, gastric, and esophagus.
Source: Surgery Today - Category: Surgery Source Type: research

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Authors: Nunes SC, Serpa J Abstract Several aspects of the human physiology are controlled by the microbiota that plays a key role in health and disease. In fact, microbial dysbiosis is associated with numerous diseases, including several types of cancer such as colon, gastric, esophageal, pancreatic, laryngeal, breast and gallbladder carcinomas.Metabolic symbiosis between non-malignant cells and the resident microbita is crucial for the host homeostasis. However, cancer cells are able to repurpose the pre-existing metabolic symbiosis, being able to recycle those relations and also create novel metabolic symbiosis,...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Mendoza-Almanza G, Ortíz-Sánchez E, Rocha-Zavaleta L, Rivas-Santiago C, Esparza-Ibarra E, Olmos J Abstract Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortalities in women from developing countries. Similar to other types of cancer, CC is considered to be a multifactorial disease, involving socioeconomic, cultural, immunological and epigenetic factors, as well as persistent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. It has been well established that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in defining tumor size, the speed of development and the level of regressi...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
This study is an important step forward in highlighting C1q as a new prognostic candidate biomarker for a range of carcinomas. Methods Oncomine Database Analysis The expression levels of C1QA, C1QB, and C1QC genes in various carcinomas were analyzed using Oncomine (www.oncomine.org), a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform from genome-wide expression analyses (22, 23). We compared the differences in mRNA level between normal tissue and carcinoma. The mRNA expression levels in neoplastic tissues compared to the healthy tissues were obtained as the parameters of p-value 2, and gene ranking in the t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate whether combining anti-PD-L1 Atezolizumab with BEV may have a synergistic effect and enhance the efficacy of both treatments in cisplatin resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (CREOC). We retrospectively analyzed 124 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients from Gynecologic Oncology Department of Tianjin Cancer Hospital between January 2013 and June 2018, who all were diagnosed with cisplatin resistance due to progressing
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Olsen I, Yilmaz Ö Abstract There is increasing evidence for an association between periodontitis/tooth loss and oral, gastrointestinal, and pancreatic cancers. Periodontal disease, which is characterized by chronic inflammation and microbial dysbiosis, is a significant risk factor for orodigestive carcinogenesis. Porphyromonas gingivalis is proposed as a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis causing both dysbiosis and discordant immune response. The present review focuses on the growing recognition of a relationship between P. gingivalis and orodigestive cancers. Porphyromonas gingivalis has been...
Source: Journal of Oral Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: J Oral Microbiol Source Type: research
Authors: Burdelski C, Jakani-Karimi N, Jacobsen F, Möller-Koop C, Minner S, Simon R, Sauter G, Steurer S, Clauditz TS, Wilczak W Abstract IMP3 is an RNA binding protein required for ribosomal RNA processing, which has been suggested to be a prognostic marker in a large variety of human types of cancer. However, available data on the prevalence of IMP3 expression are largely discrepant. To systematically investigate the epidemiology and clinical relevance of IMP3 expression in human cancers we employed a two-step tissue microarrays (TMAs) approach. First, a normal tissue TMA and a multi-tumor TMA were analyzed ...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Di Ciaula A, Wang DQ, Molina-Molina E, Baccetto RL, Calamita G, Palmieri VO, Portincasa P Abstract Bile acids (BAs) regulate the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, cholesterol and lipids but have also a key role as singalling molecules and in the modulation of epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression and metabolism. These homeostatic pathways, when disrupted, are able to promote local inflammation, systemic metabolic disorders and, ultimately, cancer. The effect of hydrophobic BAs, in particular, can be linked with cancer in several digestive (mainly oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, biliary tra...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Often described as wounds that do not heal, cancer cells depend on interactions with the surrounding stroma to develop and progress. Among the various stromal components, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a critical role in promoting tumor growth and invasion, leading to treatment resistance and poor survival in a number of cancers, including esophageal adenocarcinoma. Mechanistically, CAFs communicate with tumor cells in large part via secreted signaling factors. One such factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been shown to be secreted by CAFs to promote angiogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor c...
Source: Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Cell-Cell Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment Source Type: research
Abstract Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Some studies have shown that high heat kills cancer cells. Irisin is a protein involved in heat production by converting white into brown adipose tissue, but there is no information about how its expression changes in cancerous tissues. We used irisin antibody immunohistochemistry to investigate changes in irisin expression in gastrointestinal cancers compared to normal tissues. Irisin was found in human brain neuroglial cells, esophageal epithelial cells, esophageal epidermoid carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine esophag...
Source: Biotechnic and Histochemistry - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biotech Histochem Source Type: research
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