Dynamic Expression of JC Virus in Urine and its Relationship to Serostatus

ConclusionMS patients displayed a consistent pattern of JCV shedding over days and months in which higher levels of viruria appeared to have driven higher levels of JCV antibody index. The findings provide additional insights into the dynamic expression of JCV and host response; however, studies in larger populations and of longer duration will be needed to determine their significance to the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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The focus of this review is the role of complement-mediated phagocytosis in retinal and neurological diseases affecting the visual system. Complement activation products opsonize synaptic material on neurons for phagocytic removal, which is a normal physiological process during development, but a pathological process in several neurodegenerative diseases and conditions. We discuss the role of complement in the refinement and elimination of synapses in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus, both during development and in disease states. How complement and aberrant phagocytosis promotes injury to the visual system is dis...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with an autoimmune component. Among the recent disease-modifying treatments available, Natalizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha chain of the VLA-4 integrin (CD49d), is a potent inhibitor of cell migration toward the tissues including CNS. It potently reduces relapses and active brain lesions in the relapsing remitting form of the disease. However, it has also been associated with a severe infectious complication, the progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis (PML). Using the standard protocol with an injection ever...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Exogenous glucocorticoids are widely used in the clinic for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and hematological cancers. Unfortunately, their use is associated with debilitating side effects, including hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, mood swings, and weight gain. Despite the continued efforts of pharma as well as academia, the search for so-called selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SEGRMs), compounds with strong anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties but a reduced number or level of side effects, has had limited success so far. Although monoclonal antibody therapies have been successfully introduced for ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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