Comprehensive Review of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, and Hypercholesterolemia in Lebanon

The Middle East and North Africa regions, including Lebanon, have recently witnessed rapid urbanization and modernization over the last couple of decades that has led to a dramatic transformation affecting lifestyle and diet. The World Health Organization reports that the leading cause of death in Lebanon is due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) at 47% of all-cause mortality. Over the last 30 years, especially the last 10, the population of Lebanon has changed dramatically due to the effect of wars in the region and refugees seeking asylum. With a population of around 4.5 million and a relatively high rate of consanguinity in Lebanon, a variety of novel mutations have been discovered explaining several familial causes of hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathies. Due to the Syrian civil war, 1.5 million Syrian refugees now reside in Lebanon in either low-income housing or tented settlements. A National Institutes of Health study is examining diabetes and CVD in Syrian refugees in comparison to native Lebanese. We provide the first review of CVD in Lebanon in its metabolic component including coronary artery disease and its risk factors, mainly hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus, and its structural component, including congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and heart failure. The knowledge in this review has been compiled to guide clinicians and assist researchers in efforts to recognize risk factors fo...
Source: Cardiology in Review - Category: Cardiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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Abstract Diabetes mellitus predisposes affected individuals to a significant spectrum of cardiovascular complications, one of the most debilitating in terms of prognosis is heart failure. Indeed, the increasing global prevalence of diabetes mellitus and an aging population has given rise to an epidemic of diabetes mellitus-induced heart failure. Despite the significant research attention this phenomenon, termed diabetic cardiomyopathy, has received over several decades, understanding of the full spectrum of potential contributing mechanisms, and their relative contribution to this heart failure phenotype in the sp...
Source: Circulation Research - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circ Res Source Type: research
res E Abstract Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of death globally. In the heart, the ischemia/reperfusion injury gives rise to a complex cascade of molecular signals, called cardiac remodeling, which generates harmful consequences for the contractile function of the myocardium and consequently heart failure. Metformin is the drug of choice in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical data suggest the direct effects of this drug on cardiac metabolism and studies in animal models showed that metformin activates the classical pathway of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), generating cardioprotectiv...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Authors: Akyuz A Abstract Coronary artery disease (CAD) can be obstructive or nonobstructive. Patients with nonobstructive and stable angina pectoris are usually women. Nonobstructive CAD is caused by endothelial dysfunction at the microvascular level, such as cardiac syndrome X and coronary slow flow syndrome. Even if coronary anatomy is nonobstructive, the presence of myocardial ischemia is a major determinant for the exercise program. CAD is a chronic inflammatory disease, and the progression of the disease can lead to a rapid change in the functional capacity of CAD patients. Exercise training is a major compon...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Nrf2 deficiency promoted the increasing trend of autophagy during aging in skeletal muscle. Nrf2 deficiency and increasing age may cause excessive autophagy in skeletal muscle, which can be a potential mechanism for the development of sarcopenia. To What Degree is Chondrocyte Hypertrophy in Osteoarthritis Due to Cellular Senescence? Senescent cells are large. They do not replicate, that function is disabled, but it is as if they go ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Since Kannel and colleagues first reported on the association between serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in 1971,1 identifying clinical characteristics that predict disease onset, prognosis, and treatment response has been an objective of adult cardiovascular medicine. Risk stratification tools have, in fact, revolutionized clinical practice by guiding point-of-care decision making for therapy selection and escalation in acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pulmonary circulatory diseases, and diabetes mellitus among other treatable conditions.
Source: The American Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
In population studies of heart failure (HF), diabetes has been shown to be an independent risk factor. However, the evidence evaluating diabetes mellitus (DM) as an independent risk factor in incident HF in pa...
Source: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
This study is par for the course, looking at Japanese Olympic participants. Interestingly, it hints at the upper end of the dose-response curve for physical activity, in that a longer career as a professional athlete may be detrimental in comparison to lesser degrees of exercise and training. From this large, retrospective cohort study targeting 3546 Japanese Olympic athletes, we observed significant lower mortality among Olympians compared with the Japanese general population. The overall standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 0.29. The results were consistent with previous studies conducted in other non-Asian co...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a potential use of treprostinil as an early treatment for mild metabolic syndrome-associated PH-HFpEF and that combined treatment with treprostinil and metformin may improve hyperglycemia and cardiac function in a more severe disease. PMID: 32268788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research
Conclusion: Risk factors, aetiology, and precipitating factors of HF in de novo and ADCHF differ. De novo HF also had lower 1-year mortality and 3-month mortality compared to ADCHF. PMID: 32252602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Cardiologica - Category: Cardiology Tags: Acta Cardiol Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese results suggest that intake of germinated brown rice may effectively to protect cell proliferation and apoptosis and may provide important nutrients to prevent heart failure due to myocardial ischemia.
Source: High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Prevention - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
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