Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ruminants

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are ubiquitous protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Both parasites are of medical and veterinary importance. Infections with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in ruminants are associated with diarrhea outbreaks, mainly in young animals. Ruminants are potential sources of infection for humans because some species of Cryptosporidium and assemblages of Giardia duodenalis have been isolated from both ruminants and humans. Knowledge of these parasites has greatly expanded in the last 2 decades from simple microscopic observations of organisms to the knowledge acquired from molecular tools.
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research

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AbstractGiardia is a zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite responsible for a substantial global public health burden, and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is often used to forecast and manage this burden. QMRA requires dose –response models to extrapolate available dose–response data, but the existing model forGiardia ignores valuable dose –response information, particularly data from several well‐documented waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis. The current study updatesGiardia dose –response modeling by synthesizing all available data from outbreaks and experimental studies using a Bayesi...
Source: Risk Analysis - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
AbstractGiardia is a zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite responsible for a substantial global public health burden, and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is often used to forecast and manage this burden. QMRA requires dose –response models to extrapolate available dose–response data, but the existing model forGiardia ignores valuable dose –response information, particularly data from several well‐documented waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis. The current study updatesGiardia dose –response modeling by synthesizing all available data from outbreaks and experimental studies using a Bayesi...
Source: Risk Analysis - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Authors: Ma DW, Lee MR, Hong SH, Cho SH, Lee SE Abstract Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are the main diarrhea-causing parasitic pathogens; however, their prevalence in Korea is unknown. Here, we conducted a survey to determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of these 2 pathogens causing acute diarrhea in 8,571 patients hospitalized in 17 Regional Institute of Health Environment sites in Korea, during 2013-2016. C. parvum and G. duodenalis were detected and genotyped by nested PCR, and the isolate were molecularly characterized by sequencing the glycoprotein 60 (Gp60) and β-giardin genes...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research
Conclusion: To our knowledge, no studies have been done in these areas before. The anthroponotic transmission has an important role in giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in this studied area. PMID: 31673254 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Iran J Parasitol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide are the drugs of choice. Resistance to common antigiardial drugs has increased in recent years. As such, the search for new molecular targets for antigiardial drugs is urgently needed. In general, treatment of asymptomatic carriers is not recommended. Purification of water supply is an important preventive measure. PMID: 31210116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov Source Type: research
o RMB Abstract Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused numerous outbreaks of diarrhea as a result of the ingestion of water contaminated with sewage. In Brazil, the efficiency of Giardia and Cryptosporidium removal by combined fixed-film systems has rarely been studied. The aims of the present study were therefore to verify the removal efficiency of Giardia and Cryptosporidium by a combined system (anaerobic/anoxic filter and aerated submerged biofilter) and to perform the genetic characterization of these parasites. The (oo)cysts were detected by centrifuge concentration and membrane filtration from raw sewage, e...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract Objective: Food handlers play an important role in the production and distribution of parasitic contaminations in these societies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the food handlers in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: Totally, 1530 stool samples were collected from food handlers in Qazvin, Iran. Direct feces examination and formalinethyl acetate concentration method followed by Trichrome staining were performed to detect the parasites. Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 82 (5.4%) among food handlers. The species of protozoan paras...
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
Abstract Foodborne zoonotic pathogens are a serious public health issue and result in significant global economic losses. Despite their importance to public health, epidemiological data on foodborne diseases including giardiasis caused by the enteric parasite, Giardia duodenalis, are lacking. This parasite is estimated to cause ∼28.2 million cases of diarrhoea each year due to contamination of food, but very few foodborne outbreaks have been documented due to the limitations of current detection as well as surveillance methods. The current method for the recovery of Giardia cysts from food matrices using immun...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Authors: Ahmed SA, Guerrero Flórez M, Karanis P Abstract Waterborne protozoa (WBP) are important cause of several outbreaks all over the world. The report system of WBP in Africa is weak. More than one third of African countries (21/54) reported WBP with absent reports in the remaining countries (33/54). The top reported WBP were Cryptosporidium, Giardia, FLA and Entamoeba contaminating different African water resources. Other protozoa were less documented even though it is abundant and robust. More than one protozoa were detected in contaminated African water including drinking sources, a prediction index t...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research
This study challenges the two notions that Cryptosporidium infections only impact health and productivity of goats during the pre-weaning period, and that Cryptosporidium (and specifically C. xiaoi) infections in the absence of diarrhoea are asymptomatic. Recognising the potential for impacts of Cryptosporidium infection on growth rates in the absence of diarrhoea will support improved design for experiments testing impacts of Cryptosporidium on ruminant health and production. Improved understanding of the role of protozoan infections on animal health has implications for the management of goats in order to reduce adverse ...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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