Woman, 30, was misdiagnosed with schizophrenia after rare immune disease triggered hallucinations

Samantha Redfield, 30, of Angels Camp, California, was suffering symptoms similar to schizophrenia when she in fact had the potentially deadly autoimmune encephalitis.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Conclusion: Some patients with psychiatric syndromes and increased ANA titers may suffer from psychiatric variants of SLE, even if the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE are not met. Whether the psychiatric symptoms in our patient represent a prodromal stage with the later manifestation of full-blown SLE or a subtype of SLE with isolated CNS involvement remains unclear. Regardless, early diagnosis and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment are essential steps in preventing further disease progression and organ damage. Intrathecal ANAs with extractable nuclear antigen differentiation may be a more sensitiv...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Guided by clinical warning signals, our qualitative review enables rapid and reliable diagnosis of definite autoimmune encephalitis. This is of high relevance for the affected individuals, since early and sufficiently intense immunotherapy often leads to a good prognosis despite severe illness. PMID: 30513253 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: World J Biol Psychiatry Source Type: research
DiscussionThe autoantibodyome in FEP differs from that of healthy individuals. In this novel pilot study, a panel of 50 differentially expressed autoantibodies allowed confident discrimination between patients and controls, potentially paving the way for development of antibody-based diagnostics for psychosis using a simple blood test and fewer autoantibodies. Depletion biomarkers, thought to represent antibodies selectively depleted from the blood due to target binding in tissues, had less replicability and utility than expression biomarkers, which may offer insights into the active role of the adaptive immune system in p...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
DiscussionOngoing germinal centre reactions likely contribute much of the circulating NR1-specific B cell population in NMDAR-Ab-E. Autoimmunisation at these centres represents an as yet unexplored therapeutic target in this and potentially other autoimmune encephalopathies. Regional specificity of these reactions including lymph nodes draining sources of NR1-antigen require further direct evaluation.
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
A, Falkai P Abstract Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiat...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disease with a high mortality rate and severe social consequences. Due to insufficient knowledge about its etiopathogenesis, curative treatments are not available. One of the most promising new research concepts is the Mild Encephalitis Hypothesis of schizophrenia, developed mainly by Karl Bechter and Norbert M üller. According to this hypothesis, a significant subgroup of schizophrenia patients suffer from a chronic, but mild form of encephalitis which can have quite different etiologies ranging from viral infections, traumas to autoimmune diseases.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Poster Source Type: research
We report a case of an adolescent male who presented with all four cardinal symptoms of narcolepsy and had been misdiagnosed with epilepsy, psychosis, and depression. We discuss various issues regarding narcolepsy in children and adolescents. Keywords: narcolepsy, adolescence, misdiagnosis Innov Clin Neurosci. 2017;14(9–10):20–23 Introduction Narcolepsy is an uncommon sleep cycle disorder characterized by the tetrad of chronic excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.1 The cardinal symptom of paroxysmal sleep is seen in all patients, whereas other symptoms such as ...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Case Report Current Issue adolescence misdiagnosis narcolepsy Source Type: research
Conclusions:In cases of non-amnestic cognitive impairment with psychiatric manifestation, calcification on CT or MRI should be weighted more heavily as a sign of disease.It is plausible that the mother’s psychosis was actually caused by Fahr’s disease rather than schizophrenia. A positive family history of psychosis with presence of widespread calcification should put Fahr’s disease top on the differential.Disclosure: Dr. Fitzmorris has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bit-Ivan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bit-Ivan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bonakdarpour has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology: Cognitive Deficits in Neurological Disorders Source Type: research
Authors: Herman L, Zsigmond IR, Peter L, Rethelyi JM Abstract Anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor) encephalitis, first described in 2007, is a rare, autoimmune limbic encephalitis. In half of the cases anti-NMDAR antibodies are paraneoplastic manifestations of an underlying tumor (mostly ovarian teratoma). In the early stage of the disease psychiatric symptoms are prominent, therefore 60-70% of the patients are first treated in a psychiatric department. In most of the cases, typical neurological symptoms appear later. Besides the clinical picture and typical symptoms, verifying presence of IgG antibodies ...
Source: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Neuropsychopharmacol Hung Source Type: research
Investigations during the last 10 years have revealed a group of disorders mediated by antibodies against ion channels and synaptic receptors, which cause both neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In this review, I discuss the process of discovery and immunologic triggers of these disorders, and use anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis to emphasize the importance of understanding the underlying physiopathologic mechanisms in those diseases. A better knowledge of these mechanisms reveals points of convergence with other disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), suggests treatment strategies beyond immunotherapy, and is helping us underst...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Encephalitis, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Psychosis SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
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