The neuroscience of sadness: A multidisciplinary synthesis and collaborative review

Publication date: April 2020Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume 111Author(s): Juan A. Arias, Claire Williams, Rashmi Raghvani, Moji Aghajani, Sandra Baez, Catherine Belzung, Linda Booij, Geraldo Busatto, Julian Chiarella, Cynthia HY Fu, Agustin Ibanez, Belinda J. Liddell, Leroy Lowe, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx, Pedro Rosa, Andrew H. KempAbstractSadness is typically characterized by raised inner eyebrows, lowered corners of the mouth, reduced walking speed, and slumped posture. Ancient subcortical circuitry provides a neuroanatomical foundation, extending from dorsal periaqueductal grey to subgenual anterior cingulate, the latter of which is now a treatment target in disorders of sadness. Electrophysiological studies further emphasize a role for reduced left relative to right frontal asymmetry in sadness, underpinning interest in the transcranial stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an antidepressant target. Neuroimaging studies – including meta-analyses – indicate that sadness is associated with reduced cortical activation, which may contribute to reduced parasympathetic inhibitory control over medullary cardioacceleratory circuits. Reduced cardiac control may – in part – contribute to epidemiological reports of reduced life expectancy in affective disorders, effects equivalent to heavy smoking. We suggest that the field may be moving toward a theoretical consensus, in which different models relating to basic emotion the...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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DISCUSSION:  The study showed a higher LTBI prevalence among returnees after assignments abroad than among medical personnel in Germany after TB contact who had been investigated in previous studies. In order to be able to detect LTBI infections acquired abroad, routine testing before and after an assignment abroad seems to be necessary. PMID: 32259872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Authors: Herth F, Weidmann B PMID: 32259871 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Source: Accident and Emergency Nursing - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Arch Acad Emerg Med Source Type: research
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