Mitochondrial fission and fusion: a dynamic role in aging and potential target for age-related disease

Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Yasmine J. Liu, Rebecca L. McIntyre, Georges E. Janssens, Riekelt H. HoutkooperAbstractThe mitochondria is the major hub to convert energy for cellular processes. Dysregulation of mitochondrial function is one of the classical hallmarks of aging, and mitochondrial interventions have repeatedly been shown to improve outcomes in age-related diseases. Crucial to mitochondrial regulation is the dynamic nature of their network structure. Mitochondria separate and merge using fission and fusion processes in response to changes in energy and stress status. While many mitochondrial processes are already characterized in relation to aging, specific evidence in multicellular organisms causally linking mitochondrial dynamics to the regulation of lifespan is limited. There does exist, however, a large body of evidence connecting mitochondrial dynamics to other aging-related cellular processes and implicates them in a number of human diseases. Here, we discuss the mechanisms of mitochondrial fission and fusion, the current evidence of their role in aging of multicellular organisms, and how these connect to cell cycle regulation, quality control, and transmission of energy status. Finally, we discuss the current evidence implicating these processes in age-related human pathologies, such as neurodegenerative or cardio-metabolic diseases. We suggest that deeper understanding of the regula...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 28 May 2020Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Akihiro Yamaguchi, Kei-ichi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Shinji Saiki, Taku Hatano, Akio Mori, Yutaka Oji, Ayami Okuzumi, Yuanzhe Li, Manabu Funayama, Yuzuru Imai, Nobutaka Hattori, Wado Akamatsu
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results suggest a different biochemical composition of S. polymorpha venom, based on the different effects of four venom fractions on the cells tested, according to statistical evidence. Fractions F6 and F7 caused the most important alterations.
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
One has to be cautious about studies in which metabolism is broken in some way, and symptoms of aging start to appear earlier as a result. Whether or not this has any relevance to normal aging is dependent on the fine details of the biochemistry involved, and can often be argued either way even by those with the most knowledge in the field. Aging is an accumulation of damage and dysfunction in cells and tissues. Many genetic alterations and toxins that disrupt cell metabolism will lead to damage and dysfunction, and thus conditions that appear similar to those of aging. But unless it is the same forms and distribution of d...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Authors: Barp A, Gerardi F, Lizio A, Sansone VA, Lunetta C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper and lower motor neurons and resulting in increasing disability and death 3-5 years after onset of symptoms. Over 40 large clinical trials for ALS have been negative, except for Riluzole that offers a modest survival benefit, and Edaravone that modestly reduces disease progression in patients with specific characteristics. Thus, the discovery of efficient disease modifying therapy is an urgent need. AREAS COVERED: Althou...
Source: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Emerg Drugs Source Type: research
We describe a new case of Leigh syndrome caused by a novel pathogenic variant of the C12orf65 gene resulting in the lack of the Gly-Gly-Gln (GGQ) domain in the predicted protein, and review clinical and molecular data from previously reported patients. Our study supports that the phenotype caused by C12orf65 gene variants is heterogeneous and varies from spastic paraparesis to Leigh syndrome. Loss-of-function variants are more likely to cause the disease, and variants affecting the GGQ domain tend to be associated with more severe phenotypes, reinforcing a possible genotype-phenotype correlation.
Source: Genetics and Molecular Biology - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
A fair amount of effort is presently put towards the exploration of supplements derived from vitamin B3 compounds (nicotinamide, niacin, nicotinamide riboside) that act as precursors to enable the manufacture of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD is an important component in mitochondrial activity, and levels decline with age. Some portion of the loss of mitochondrial function, implicated in the progression of many age-related conditions, is due to NAD insufficiency. There is a rich history of the use of high doses of vitamin B3 as an intervention, most of it predating modern understanding of the role of NAD in m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): M.M. Faas, P. de Vos
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Rocio Rojo, Debora Garza-Hernandez, Mauricio de la Rosa, Victor Treviño
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Purpose of review FOXOs are transcription factors that regulate downstream target genes to counteract to cell stress. Here we review the function and regulation of FOXO transcription factors, the mechanism of FOXO3 activation in the kidney, and the role of FOXO3 in delaying the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent findings Progressive renal hypoxia from vascular dropout and metabolic perturbation is a pathogenic factor for the initiation and development of CKD. Hypoxia and low levels of α-ketoglutarate generated from the TCA cycle inhibit prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-mediated prolyl hydroxylati...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: RENAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Edited by Orson W. Moe and Susan E. Quaggin Source Type: research
er St-Pierre Dufour Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leads to steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. For sedentary patients, lifestyle interventions combining exercise and dietary changes are a cornerstone of treatment. However, the benefit of exercise alone when dietary changes have failed is uncertain. We query whether exercise alone arrests the progression of NASH and tumorigenesis in a choline-deficient, high-fat diet (CD-HFD) murine model. Male C57Bl/6N mice received a control diet or CD-HFD for 12 weeks. CD-HFD mice were randomized further for 8 weeks of sedentariness (SED)...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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