Poliovirus therapy shows potential as cancer vaccine in lab studies

A modified form of poliovirus, pioneered at Duke Cancer Institute as a therapy for glioblastoma brain tumors, appears in laboratory studies to also have applicability for pediatric brain tumors when used as part of a cancer vaccine. In preclinical studies using mice and human cancer cells, an injection of the modified poliovirus vector instigated an immune response that homed in on mutated cancer cells that predominate in diffuse midline glioma (DMG) tumors. The cancer strikes children and is universally deadly.
Source: World Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news

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AbstractGlioblastoma remains as the most common and aggressive primary adult brain tumor to date. Within the last decade, cancer immunotherapy surfaced as a broadly successful therapeutic approach for a variety of cancers. However, due to the neuroanatomical and immunosuppressive nature of malignant gliomas, conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments garner limited efficacy in patients with these tumors. The intricate structure of the blood brain barrier restricts immune accessibility into the tumor microenvironment, and malignant gliomas can activate various adaptive responses to subvert anticancer immune respo...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: IL15Rα-IL15-armed oncolytic poxviruses provide potent antitumor effects against brain tumors when combined with adoptive T cell therapy, rapamycin and celecoxib. PMID: 32019860 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Authors: Galldiks N, Lohmann P, Werner JM, Ceccon G, Fink GR, Langen KJ Abstract Introduction: Currently, immunotherapy using vaccination strategies or oncolytic virus approaches, cell-based immunotherapy, and the blockade of immune checkpoints are under evaluation in patients with brain cancer. Here we summarize clinically significant imaging findings such as treatment-related changes detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques following the most suitable immunotherapy options currently used in neuro-oncology. We, furthermore, provide an overview of how these advanced imaging techniques may help to overcome short...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research
Abstract Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of childhood cancer-related death. Immunotherapy is a powerful new approach for treating some refractory cancers; applying this 'fourth pillar' of cancer treatment to pediatric brain tumors is an exciting but challenging prospect. This review offers new perspectives on moving towards successful immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors, focusing on pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG), a subgroup with universally poor outcomes. We cover chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, vaccine therapy, and checkpoint inhibition in this context, and focus on the nee...
Source: Trends in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Trends Immunol Source Type: research
Yong Zhao1, Peijuan Liu1, Zhiqian Xin1, Changhong Shi1, Yinlan Bai2, Xiuxuan Sun3, Ya Zhao1, Xiaoya Wang1,4, Li Liu1,5, Xuan Zhao1,4, Zhinan Chen3* and Hai Zhang1,6* 1Laboratory Animal Center, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 2Department of Microbiology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 3Department of Cell Biology, National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, China 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China 5Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nor...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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