Microbial-Based and Microbial-Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

AbstractInflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn ’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis, are chronic, relapsing intestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by dysregulated immune responses to resident microbiota. Current standard therapies that block immune activation with oral immunosuppressives or biologic agents are generally effective, but each therapy induces a sustained remission in only a minority of patients. Furthermore, these approaches can have severe adverse events. Recent compelling evidence of a role of unbalanced microbiota (dysbiosis) driving immune dysfunction and inflammation in IBD supports the therapeutic rational e for manipulating the dysbiotic microbiota. Traditional approaches using currently available antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have not produced optimal results, but promising outcomes with fecal microbiota transplant provide a proof of principle for targeting the resident microbi ota. Rationally designed oral biotherapeutic products (LBPs) composed of mixtures of protective commensal bacterial strains demonstrate impressive preclinical results. Resident microbial-based and microbial-targeted therapies are currently being studied with increasing intensity for IBD primary ther apy with favorable early results. This review presents current evidence and therapeutic mechanisms of microbiota modulation, emphasizing clinical studies, and outlines prospects for future IBD treatment using new approaches, such as L...
Source: Digestive Diseases and Sciences - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Of the biological agents, vedolizumab and infliximab were the most effective, suggesting that biological agents are still a better choice. Nevertheless, tofacitinib and FMT may be promising alternatives with high efficacies. However, more safety and maintenance studies need to be conducted in future for the acquisition of more accurate results.Abbreviations: FMT: Fecal microbiota transplantation; UC: Ulcerative colitis; RCTs: Randomized controlled trials; IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease; CD: Crohn's disease; IBS: Irritable bowel syndrome; CDI: Clostridium difficile infections; ITT: Intention-to-treat; RR: Relat...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. These proliferating mature SCs and HCs maintain their respective identities. Moreover, when presented with HC induction signals, reprogrammed adult SCs transdifferentiate into HC-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, our data suggest that regenerated HC-like cells likely possess functional transduction channels and are able to form connections with adult auditory neurons. Epige...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The microbial populations of the gut make a significant contribution to health via secreted metabolites and interactions with the immune system. Starting in mid-life, these populations alter for the worse, and this is thought to influence the progression of aging - perhaps primarily as a contributing cause of chronic inflammation. How this effect size compares with those resulting from dietary and exercise choices is an open question, but it isn't unreasonable to suggest it to be in the same ballpark as exercise. What can be done to improve this situation? Supplementation with metabolites produced in larger amounts ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Purpose of review Pouchitis is the most common complication in patients who undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), occurring more frequently in patients with ulcerative colitis. Pouchitis – the inflammation of the pouch – can be due to idiopathic or secondary causes. Chronic antibiotic-dependent pouchitis (CADP) and chronic antibiotic-resistant pouchitis (CARP) are the most difficult forms of chronic idiopathic pouchitis to treat. Crohn's disease of the pouch may develop de novo in ulcerative colitis patients following colectomy with IPAA. It carries a high risk for pouch failure, and its diagnosis and ...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: LARGE INTESTINE: Edited by Eamonn M.M. Quigley Source Type: research
AbstractAplastic anemia (AA) has been reported to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but mostly with ulcerative colitis (UC). Little is known about the associations between AA and Crohn ’s disease (CD). We aim to determine the portraits of patients with AA-CD. Among a total of 657 patients with CD registered in Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases IBD center from January 2008 to October 2018, the patients diagnosed with concurrent AA were reviewed. Clinical presentation, medical history, endoscopic features, response to treatment, and prognosis in this set of patients were collected. Six male patie...
Source: Annals of Hematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Conditions:   Ulcerative Colitis;   Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Interventions:   Drug: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation;   Dietary Supplement: Psyllium Husk Powder Sponsors:   Weill Medical College of Cornell University;   Crohn's and Colitis Foundation Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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