Cryptococcosis

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 069-079 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400280Cryptococcosis has become an important infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Although Cryptococcus is mainly recognized by its ability to cause meningoencephalitis, it can infect almost any organ of the human body, with pulmonary infection being the second most common disease manifestation. In cases of meningitis, symptom onset may be insidious, but headaches, fevers, or mental status changes should warrant diagnostic testing. Symptoms of pulmonary disease are nonspecific and may include fever, chills, cough, malaise, night sweats, dyspnea, weight loss, and hemoptysis. Due to protean manifestations of infection, diagnosis may be delayed or misdiagnosis may occur. Diagnosis typically is made by antigen testing of serum or cerebrospinal fluid or by culture or histopathology of infected tissues. A lumbar puncture with the measurement of opening pressure is recommended for patients with suspected or proven cryptococcosis. Treatment of cryptococcosis is based on the anatomical site of disease, severity of disease, and underlying immune status of the patient. Amphotericin B preparations plus 5-flucytosine is used as initial treatment of meningitis, disseminated infection, or moderate-to-severe pulmonary infection followed by fluconazole as a consolidation therapy. Fluconazole is effective for mild-to-moderate pulmonary infection. Important complications include elevated intracranial pre...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

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Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research
The World Health Organization (WHO) on Thursday heeded calls from more than 200 scientists, who urged the global health authority to acknowledge that COVID-19 may spread by air. Previously, the WHO said contact with large respiratory droplets, like those expelled in a sick person’s cough or sneeze, appeared to be the primary way COVID-19 spreads. But in a highly publicized letter published earlier this week, a large group of scientists argued the WHO’s guidance neglected to adequately address another important route of transmission: inhaling tiny respiratory particles generated by a sick person, which can remai...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: This translational diagnostic tool will assist emergency and primary care clinicians, as well as out-of-hospital providers, in effectively managing people with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2. PMID: 32633414 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
In this study, we enlisted 475 children (290 males and 185 females; ratio 1.6:1), aged 4 to 14 years, who were affected by primary headache. In direct interviews, children and parents gave information on the association of their headache with, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, tics, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Other 475 children with no history of headache or recognized neurological conditions were matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status and were used as controls. RESULTS: A significant association of primary headache was found with anxiety and depression (p-value
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
[Health of adolescents in the 1997/1998 birth cohort in São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2020;36(7):e00164519 Authors: Simões VMF, Batista RFL, Alves MTSSBE, Ribeiro CCC, Thomaz EBAF, Carvalho CA, Silva AAMD Abstract The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of health indicators among adolescents in São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil, in 2016. The analysis included sociodemographic conditions, life habits, body composition, sleep quality, physical activity, cognitive performance, and suicide risk in 2,515 adolescents 18 to 19 years o...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can potentially lead to death if not promptly treated. Allergic reactions typically begin suddenly after exposure to an allergen, which may be a food, medication, insect sting, or another trigger. Anaphylaxis can occur in anyone at any time; it can sometimes be triggered by allergens that a person has only had mild reactions to in the past — or to which they have never reacted to before. Recognizing anaphylaxis A mild allergic reaction may consist of hives, itching, flushing, swelling of the lips or tongue, or some combination of these. However, throat swelling or tighte...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Allergies Emergency Planning Source Type: blogs
no LK Abstract Purpose To analyze, in aged obese patients, the weight loss, comorbidity control, and safety postoperative complications of bariatric surgery by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass technique. Methods Twenty-seven patients who underwent laparoscopic weight-reducing gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass to treat obesity were included. All patients were ≥ 60 years old at the time of surgery. The Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis, and a p-value ≤0.05it was considered significant. Results Ten (90.9%) patients with dyslipidemia were cured (p
Source: Acta Cirurgica Brasileira - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Acta Cir Bras Source Type: research
Abstract Cryptococcosis has become an important infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Although Cryptococcus is mainly recognized by its ability to cause meningoencephalitis, it can infect almost any organ of the human body, with pulmonary infection being the second most common disease manifestation. In cases of meningitis, symptom onset may be insidious, but headaches, fevers, or mental status changes should warrant diagnostic testing. Symptoms of pulmonary disease are nonspecific and may include fever, chills, cough, malaise, night sweats, dyspnea, weight loss, and hemoptysis. Due to prot...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
We report the first two Libyan cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients, in which one of them presented a secondary cutaneous involvement due to systemic dissemination. The first patient was a 17-year-old female, had fever, cough, headache and intractable vomiting as well as itchy water bumps on her skin and upper limbs. The cutaneous eruption prompted the accurate diagnosis. Cultures were positive for C. neoformans in both cerebrospinal fluid and skin specimens, as well as cryptococcal antigen was detected in serum. The isolate was identified, by molecular analysis, as C. neoformans AD-hybrid belonging t...
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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