A panoramic review of IL-6: Structure, pathophysiological roles and inhibitors.
A panoramic review of IL-6: Structure, pathophysiological roles and inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2020 Jan 20;:115327 Authors: Kaur S, Bansal Y, Kumar R, Bansal G Abstract Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine. Its deregulation is associated with chronic inflammation, and multifactorial auto-immune disorders. It mediates its biological roles through a hexameric complex composed of IL-6 itself, its receptor IL-6R, and glycoprotein 130 (IL-6/IL-6R/gp130). This complex, in turn, activates different signaling mechanisms (classical and trans-signaling) to execute various biochemical functions. The trans-signaling mechanism activates various pathological routes, like JAK/STAT3, Ras/MAPK, PI3K-PKB/Akt, and regulation of CD4+ T cells and VEGF levels, which cause cancer, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, anemia, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Involvement of IL-6 in pathophysiology of these complex diseases makes it an important target for the treatment of these diseases. Though some anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies are being used clinically, but their high cost, only parenteral administration, and possibility of immunogenicity have limited their use, and warranted the development of novel small non-peptide molecules as IL-6 inhibitors. In the present report, all molecules reported in literature as IL-6 inhibitors have been classified as IL-6 production, IL-6R, and IL-6 signaling inhibitors. Re...
ConclusionsThe results demonstrate that even subtle changes in vessel morphology can be noninvasively quantified. This is of great interest for AD, but also to other models of neurodegenerative diseases involving macrovascular dysfunction.
ConclusionsUnlike [18F]FDG, [18F]BODIPY 1 showed prominent accumulation in BAT under both inactive and stimulated status. [18F]BODIPY 1 may serve as a valuable BAT PET agent to possibly assess BAT mitochondria density, thus BAT thermogenic capacity after further evaluation.
ConclusionsHypoxia modulation may play a role in nal-IRI ’s mechanism of action. Nal-IRI demonstrated greater anti-tumor activity in the more aggressive and hypoxic tumor model. Furthermore, hypoxia imaging provided early prediction of treatment response.
AbstractPurposeTo investigate and validate the potential role of a radiomics signature in predicting the side-specific probability of extracapsular extension (ECE) of prostate cancer (PCa).ProceduresThe preoperative magnetic resonance imaging data of 238 prostatic samples from 119 enrolled PCa patients were retrospectively assessed. The samples with were randomized in a two-to-one ratio into training (n = 74) and validation (n = 45) datasets. The radiomics features were derived from T2-weighted images (T2WIs). The optimal radiomics features were identified from the least absolute shrinkage and s...
ConclusionsIntegrated [68Ga]PSMA-11 PET/MRI provides a similarly high diagnostic performance for localization of recurrent PC as PET/CT. For the detection of local recurrences [68Ga]PSMA-11 PET/MRI is superior compared with [68Ga]PSMA-11 PET/CT.
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Serena L'Abbate, Ilaria Russo, Claudia Kusmic
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Bile acids are cholesterol metabolites that can signal through receptors on cells throughout the body, including in the CNS and the immune system. Whether bile acid metabolism is abnormal in MS is unknown. Using global and targeted metabolomic profiling, we identified lower levels of circulating bile acid metabolites in multiple cohorts of adult and pediatric patients with MS compared with controls. In white matter lesions from MS brain tissue, we noted the presence of bile acid receptors on immune and glial cells. To mechanistically examine the ...
Dear colleagues, please advise concerning this patient: 40 yo male, high PS, diagnosed a couple of years ago of colic cancer that was locally treated. Aug 2020: he was diagnosed of left parietal (at the level of the motor strip) solitary brain lesion. octobre 2020: he underwent a complete resection , followed by cavity SRS 18Gy /1 fr April 2020: refractory seizures MRI showed a relapsing left parietal cavity lesion, whose epicenter was next to the trolard vein. he was re-resected quasi... re-irradiation after single fraction cavity SRS? What dose?
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2020Source: The Journal of Molecular DiagnosticsAuthor(s): Manny D. Bacolod, Aashiq H. Mirza, Jianmin Huang, Sarah F. Giardina, Philip B. Feinberg, Steven A. Soper, Francis Barany
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): S. El-Wahsh, H. Bogaardt, F. Kumfor, K. Ballard