Highlights in heart failure

This article is aimed to give an update on recent advances in all aspects of this syndrome. Major changes occurred in drug treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sacubitril/valsartan is indicated as a substitute to ACEi/ARBs after PARADIGM ‐HF (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.87 for sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril for the primary endpoint and Wei, Lin and Weissfeld HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71–0.89 for recurrent events). Its initiation was then shown as safe and potentially useful in recent studies in p atients hospitalized for acute HF. More recently, dapagliflozin and prevention of adverse‐outcomes in DAPA‐HF trial showed the beneficial effects of the sodium–glucose transporter type 2 inhibitor dapaglifozin vs. placebo, added to optimal standard therapy [HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.85;0.74; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.85 for the primary endpoint]. Trials with other SGLT 2 inhibitors and in other patients, such as those with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or with recent decompensation, are ongoing. Multiple studies showed the unfavourable prognostic significance of abnormalities in serum potassium levels. Potassium lowering agents may allow initiation and titration of mineralocorticoid antagonists in a larger proportion of patients. Meta‐analyses suggest better outcomes with ferric carboxymaltose in patients with iron deficiency. Drugs effective in HFrEF may be useful also i n HF with mid‐range ejection fr...
Source: ESC Heart Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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This article describes several clinical cases of cardiovascular emergencies, such as coronary stent thrombosis-restenosis, takotsubo syndrome, acute myocarditis, massive pulmonary embolism, type A acute aortic dissection, cardiac tamponade, and endocarditis.
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Acute aortic syndromes are life-threatening medical conditions that include classic acute aortic dissection (AAD), aortic intramural hematoma, penetrating aortic ulcer, and even aortic pseudoaneurysm and traumatic aortic injury. The European Society of Cardiology has designed a multiparametric diagnostic algorithm to provide stepwise diagnosis. All patients with AAD should receive aggressive medical therapy to control blood pressure and heart rate. Urgent surgical repair is recommended for type A AAD. Uncomplicated type B AAD requires aggressive medical therapy. In contrast thoracic endovascular repair is recommended for c...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
The incidence of cardiogenic shock and the utilization of mechanical circulatory support devices are increasing in the US. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock through basic hemodynamic and myocardial energetic principles. We also explore the commonly used platforms for temporary mechanical circulatory support, their advantages, disadvantages and practical considerations relating to implementation and management. It is through the translation of underlying physiological principles that we can attempt to maximize the clinical utility of circulatory support devices and improve outcomes in cardiogenic shock.
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), which can be applied without endotracheal airway or tracheostomy, has been used as the first-line device for patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices include continuous PAP, bilevel PAP, and adaptive servoventilation. NIPPV can provide favorable physiologic benefits, including improving oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, and pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics. It can also reduce the intubation rate and improve clinical symptoms, resulting in good quality of life and mortality.
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Obesity is very common in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Obesity and increased adiposity have multiple adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, including hemodynamic, inflammatory, mechanical, and neurohormonal effects. Obesity and increased adiposity may be a promising target for therapy in HFpEF. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity-related HFpEF, diagnostic evaluation of HFpEF among obese patients with dyspnea, and potential therapeutic options for the HFpEF obesity phenotype.
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices are frequently used for management of patients with advanced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Although technologic advancements have contributed to improved outcomes, several complications arise over time. These complications result from several factors, including medication effects, physiologic responses to chronic exposure to circulatory support that is minimally/entirely nonpulsatile, and dysfunction of the device itself. Clinical presentation can range from chronic and indolent to acute, life-threatening emergencies. Several areas of uncertainty exist regardi...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) results in significant changes in cardiac structure and functions, leading to left ventricular remodeling and subsequent systolic and diastolic dysfunction. To improve current approaches in diagnoses, treatments, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, a better understanding of cardiac mechanoenergetics, including systolic performance and energy demand, becomes paramount. In this review, we summarize cardiac mechanics, cardiac energetics, and their relationship in complications related to AMI using 2 important physiologic frameworks, pressure-volume loops and the Vo2-pressure-volume are...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
The key to understanding hemodynamics in heart failure (HF) is the relation between elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and cardiac output. Some patients show abnormal response to stress in the relationship between LV filling pressure and cardiac output. In patients with preserved diastolic function, cardiac output can be increased without significantly elevated filling pressure during stress. In patients with HF, as long as the Frank-Starling mechanism operates effectively, cardiac output can increase while acquiring elevated filling pressure. In patients with decompensated HF, hemodynamic stress will lead to ...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Process Improvement in Heart Failure
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Michinari Hieda, Giovanni Esposito, and Eduardo Bossone
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
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