Signaling pathways that regulate Trypanosoma cruzi infection and immune response

Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Fabio Marcelo Cerbán, Cinthia Carolina Stempin, Ximena Volpini, Antonio Carrera Silva, Susana Gea, Claudia Cristina MotranAbstractCurrent understanding of key cellular pathways, which are activated by the interaction between T. cruzi and host immunity, is crucial for controlling T. cruzi infection and also for limiting the development of the immunopathological symptoms of Chagas´ disease. Here, we focus on recent advances in the knowledge of modulation of innate receptors such as TLRs and NLRs, especially NLRP3, by T. cruzi in different cells of the immune system. On the other hand, the modulation of macrophage activation may be instrumental in allowing parasite persistence and long-term host survival. In this sense, we discuss the importance of the metabolism of two amino acids: L-arginine and tryptophan, and evaluate the role of iNOS, arginase and IDO enzymes in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune response during this infection; and, finally, we also discuss how T. cruzi exploits the AhR, mTOR and Wnt signaling pathways to promote their intracellular replication in macrophages, thus evading the host's immune response.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 31 March 2020Source: Fish &Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Xia Liu, Yongyao Yu, Dacheng Qin, Zixi Song, Zhenyu Huang, Kaifeng Meng, Jiafeng Cao, Fangzheng Xu, Gaofeng Cheng, Wei Ji, Zhen Xu
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
“In the animal kingdom, the rule is, eat or be eaten” (ref. 1, p. 20). We will expand academic Thomas Szasz’s statement to include the fungi, because in the multifaceted interactions of fungi and nematodes, this is often a steadfast rule. Indeed, soil systems that appear inert or lifeless to...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research
After being ingested by a female Anopheles mosquito during a bloodmeal on an infected host, and before they can reach the mosquito salivary glands to be transmitted to a new host, Plasmodium parasites must establish an infection of the mosquito midgut in the form of oocysts. To achieve this, they...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Leukocyte migration into tissues depends on the activity of chemokines that form concentration gradients to guide leukocytes to a specific site. Interaction of chemokines with their specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on leukocytes induces leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial cells, followed by extravasation of the leukocytes and subsequent directed migration along the chemotactic gradient. Interaction of chemokines with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is crucial for extravasation in vivo. Chemokines need to interact with GAGs on endothelial cells and in the extracellular matrix in tissues in order to be presented on t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionIn this analysis, we observed that 14% of SIV adults had LTBI, 27% of SIVH had at least one intestinal parasite, and about half of SIV children had EBLL. Most adults were susceptible to HBV. In general, prevalence of infection was higher for most conditions among Afghan SIVH compared to Iraqi SIVH. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Guidelines for the US Domestic Medical Examination for Newly Arriving Refugees can assist state public health departments and clinicians in the care of SIVH during the domestic medical examination. Future analyses can explore other aspects of health among resettled SI...
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur study found that standardized ID screening in a URM cohort was practicable and helped collection of relevant patient data in a thorough and time-effective manner. However, screening practices need to be ameliorated, especially in relation to testing for parasitic infections. Most importantly, we found that only a minority of infections were able to be detected clinically. This underscores the importance of active surveillance of IDs among refugees.
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract These are cutaneous diseases caused by insects, worms, protozoa, or coelenterates which may or may not have a parasitic life. In this review the main ethological agents, clinical aspects, laboratory exams, and treatments of these dermatological diseases will be studied.
Source: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Authors: Naghi Vishteh M, Javadi Mamaghani A, Rashidi S, Seyyed Tabaei SJ, Jeddi-Tehrani M Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect a wide range of warm-blooded animals. Humans as an intermediate host are infected by ingesting infectious oocytes or tissue cysts, or passing through the placenta in pregnant women. The aim of this study is producing monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide from (surface antigen 1 [SAG1] or P30) protein of T. gondii. A synthetic peptide from SAG1 (P30) protein was conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH (and then used for immunizat...
Source: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy - Category: Microbiology Tags: Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother Source Type: research
And now for something completely unrelated to COVID-19.For those of you able to get outdoors, keep a look out for these little critters. For those of you stuck inside, you might be happy that you are missing them:Identification?Generously donated by Florida Fan.
Source: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites - Category: Parasitology Source Type: blogs
Practical, field-ready age-grading tools for mosquito vectors of disease are urgently needed because of the impact that daily survival has on vectorial capacity. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared ...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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