Signaling pathways that regulate Trypanosoma cruzi infection and immune response
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Fabio Marcelo Cerbán, Cinthia Carolina Stempin, Ximena Volpini, Antonio Carrera Silva, Susana Gea, Claudia Cristina MotranAbstractCurrent understanding of key cellular pathways, which are activated by the interaction between T. cruzi and host immunity, is crucial for controlling T. cruzi infection and also for limiting the development of the immunopathological symptoms of Chagas´ disease. Here, we focus on recent advances in the knowledge of modulation of innate receptors such as TLRs and NLRs, especially NLRP3, by T. cruzi in different cells of the immune system. On the other hand, the modulation of macrophage activation may be instrumental in allowing parasite persistence and long-term host survival. In this sense, we discuss the importance of the metabolism of two amino acids: L-arginine and tryptophan, and evaluate the role of iNOS, arginase and IDO enzymes in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune response during this infection; and, finally, we also discuss how T. cruzi exploits the AhR, mTOR and Wnt signaling pathways to promote their intracellular replication in macrophages, thus evading the host's immune response.
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Journal of Genetics and GenomicsAuthor(s): Chengqi Wang, Justin Gibbons, Swamy R. Adapa, Jenna Oberstaller, Xiangyun Liao, Min Zhang, John H. Adams, Rays H.Y. Jiang
Authors: Abdeta D, Kebede N, Giday M, Terefe G, Abay SM Abstract Microbial resistance to the few conventional antitrypanosomal drugs, increasing resistance of vectors to insecticides, lack of effective vaccines, and adverse effects of the existing antitrypanosomal drugs justify the urgent need for effective, tolerable, and affordable drugs. We assessed antitrypanosomal effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Echinops kebericho Mesfin roots against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Parasite load, packed cell volume (PCV), body weight, and rectal temperature in Swiss albino...
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the crude extract of A. hispidum DC, one of the plants used traditionally to treat malaria, inhibits the growth of P. falciparum in vitro and could be a potential source of antimalarial drug. The report has highlighted genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the selected plant extracts on human leukocytes as well. PMID: 33029160 [PubMed]
(Nagoya University) Using the model Orobanchaceae parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum, scientists have discerned the molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism and cross-species grafting, pinpointing enzymeβ-1,4-glucanase (GH9B3) as an important contributor to both phenomena. Targeting this enzyme may help control plant parasitism in crops.
Conclusions: The low prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriage by the children living in the Cape Coast Metropolis suggests that the malaria control interventions in place in CCMA are highly effective and that additional malaria control interventions are required for the KEEA district to reduce the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers. No molecular evidence of P. ovale and P. vivax was identified in the afebrile children sampled from the selected schools. PMID: 33029151 [PubMed]
Study seeks to compare microbiomes of our ancestors for clues to modern diseasesResearchers working knee-deep in 14th- and 15th-century latrines have found that bacterial DNA from human excrement can last for centuries and provide clues to how our gut contents have changed significantly since medieval times.Analysis of two cesspits, one in Jerusalem and the other in the Latvian capital, Riga, could help scientists understand if changes to our microbiome – the genetic makeup of the bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites and other microbes living inside us – affect modern-day afflictions.Continue reading...
(New York University) A team of researchers at NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) has found that the Plasmodium parasite, which transmits malaria to humans through infected mosquitos, triggers changes in human genes that alter the body's adaptive immune response to malarial infections.
(Science For Life Laboratory) A study lead by SciLifeLab Fellow Simon Els ä sser elucidates the mechanism of a peculiar type of heterochromatin, used by embryonic stem cells to silence 'parasitic' DNA-elements within the context of their highly dynamic pluripotent chromatin.
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2020, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/D0OB01730B, PaperConstance Mawunyo Korkor, Larnelle Faye Garnie, Leah Amod, Timothy J Egan, Kelly Chibale The intrinsic fluorescence properties of two related pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole antimalarial compounds suitable for cellular imaging of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum without the need to attach extrinsic fluorophores are described.... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects an estimated 8 –11 million people globally. Chagas disease is almost always associated with poverty in rural areas and...