Zoonotic Disease Exposure Risk and Rabies Vaccination Among Wildlife Professionals

AbstractMore than 70% of zoonotic diseases are wildlife associated putting wildlife professionals at increased risk of occupational exposure. In 2008 and 2018, the Arizona Department of Health Services surveyed Arizona wildlife professionals from multiple agencies to assess the risk of disease exposure, rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) history, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and zoonoses knowledge. In 2008, a 12-question survey was distributed at a state wildlife professional meeting using an anonymous email link. In 2018, a 20-question survey was distributed using an anonymous email link to wildlife agency employees. We received 164 and 81 complete responses in the 2008 and 2018 surveys, respectively. Bites from rabies reservoir or spillover species were higher in 2008 (42%) than in 2018 (16%). More respondents received PrEP in 2018 (53%) than in 2008 (45%). Among 43 respondents who performed necropsies or collected animal samples within the past 5  years (2014–2018), only 60% always wore latex or nitrile gloves, and 79% never wore a facemask. Respondents indicated lower awareness of certain zoonoses, including brucellosis (72%) and leptospirosis (60%). Results on zoonoses awareness and reasons for non-use of PPE highlighted targets for edu cation to improve practices, including facilitation of PPE training to prevent future disease transmission.
Source: EcoHealth - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

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Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 11/19/2018. This 262-page report presents the results of zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2017 in 37 European countries: 28 European Union (EU) Member States and nine non-Member States. It summarizes trends and sources for diseases that include salmonella, Campylobacteriosis, bovine tuberculosis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus, and tularaemia. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 11/13/2017 This 228-page report presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2016 in 37 European countries (28 Member States [MS] and nine non-MS). It summarizes trends and sources for Yersinia (plague) and tularemia, both Category A bioterrorism agents; brucella, a Category B bioterrorism Agent; bovine tuberculosis, trichinellosis, echinococcosis, toxoplasmosis, rabies, Q fever, and West Nile fever. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: news
Authors: Ghasemzadeh I, Namazi SH Abstract Dogs are a major reservoir for zoonotic infections. Dogs transmit several viral and bacterial diseases to humans. Zoonotic diseases can be transmitted to human by infected saliva, aerosols, contaminated urine or feces and direct contact with the dog. Viral infections such as rabies and norovirus and bacterial infections including Pasteurella, Salmonella, Brucella, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter, Capnocytophaga, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira, Staphylococcus intermedius and Methicillin resistance staphylococcus aureus are the most common vi...
Source: Journal of Medicine and Life - Category: Journals (General) Tags: J Med Life Source Type: research
Authors: Revich B, Tokarevich N, Parkinson A Abstract Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such...
Source: International Journal of Circumpolar Health - Category: Global & Universal Tags: Int J Circumpolar Health Source Type: research
European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 12/16/2016 This 231-page document presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2015 in 32 European countries (28 Member States [MS] and four non-MS). A total of 4,362 food-borne outbreaks, including water-borne outbreaks, were reported. Bacteria were the most commonly detected causative agents, followed by bacterial toxins, viruses, other causative agents, and parasites. The report summarizes trends and sources for tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burneti...
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Source Type: news
Funding Opportunity ID: 290231 Opportunity Number: CDC-RFA-CK17-1702 Opportunity Title: Addressing Emerging Zoonoses and Strengthening Animal and Human Health SystemsOpportunity Category: DiscretionaryOpportunity Category Explanation: Funding Instrument Type: Cooperative AgreementCategory of Funding Activity: HealthCategory Explanation: CFDA Number(s): 93.318Eligible Applicants: Others (see text field entitled "Additional Information on Eligibility" for clarification)Additional Information on Eligibility: Sole Source to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.Agency Code: HHS-CDC-NCE...
Source: Grants.gov - Category: Research Tags: Health Source Type: funding
ConclusionAlthough less prominently mentioned, neglected zoonotic diseases ranked highly compared to those with epidemic potential suggesting these endemic diseases cause substantial public health burden. The list of priority zoonotic disease is crucial for the targeted allocation of resources and informing disease prevention and control programs for zoonoses in Kenya.
Source: PLoS One - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion/Significance The health impact of zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan is substantial, comparable to that of HIV. Community-based surveillance studies and hospital-based registration of all occurrences of zoonoses would increase the accuracy of the estimates.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic capacity alongside healthcare provider education and improved clinical guidelines for syndrome-based disease management to provoke diagnostic consideration of locally relevant zoonoses in the absence of laboratory confirmation.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract This review reports on laboratory diagnostic approaches for selected, highly pathogenic neglected zoonotic diseases, i.e. anthrax, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, rabies, Taenia solium-associated diseases (neuro-/cysticercosis &taeniasis) and trypanosomiasis. Diagnostic options, including microscopy, culture, matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, molecular approaches and serology are introduced. These procedures are critically discussed regarding their diagnostic reliability and state of evaluation. For rare diseases reliable eva...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
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