Activity of ceftolozane–tazobactam and comparators against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients in different risk strata – SMART United States 2016–2017

Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 20Author(s): Sibylle H. Lob, Daryl J. Hoban, Katherine Young, Mary R. Motyl, Daniel F. SahmAbstractObjectivesInfections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are often difficult to treat. Knowledge of the risk of infection with resistant P. aeruginosa would allow more discriminatory prescribing of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Using clinical isolates collected as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), we examined the activity of commonly used β-lactams, levofloxacin, and ceftolozane–tazobactam (C/T), an antipseudomonal cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor approved in the United States and over 60 countries worldwide, against P. aeruginosa isolates from patients in different risk strata.MethodsIn 2016–2017, 25 hospitals in the US each collected up to 250 consecutive gram-negative bacilli per year from respiratory tract (RTI), intraabdominal (IAI), and urinary tract (UTI) infections. MICs of 9,964 isolates (including 1,887 P. aeruginosa) were determined using CLSI broth microdilution and interpreted with CLSI breakpoints.ResultsSusceptibility of all P. aeruginosa isolates combined was 94.7% to C/T and 76.8%, 77.0%, 70.2%, and 69.0% to ceftazidime, meropenem, piperacillin–tazobactam, and levofloxacin, respectively. Susceptibility to the β-lactam comparators was 8–11 percentage points lower among ICU than non-ICU isolates, 7&n...
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of avian-origin mcr-1-harbouring Escherichia coli in Shandong Province, China. During 2017—2018, a total of 668 non-duplicate E. coli isolates were separately collected from 8eight large intensive poultry farms in Shandong Province. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 10 antimicrobial agents commonly used in farms was performed on all E. coli isolates by the agar dilution method; the mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) gene was screened by PCR, and mcr-1 positive isolates were PCR-screened for antimicrobial resistance genes and ty...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Valéria Cataneli Pereira, Letícia Calixto Romero, Luiza Pinheiro-Hubinger, Adilson Oliveira, Katheryne Benini Martins, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da CunhaAbstractThe increasing rates of nosocomial infection associated with coagulase–negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the rationale for this study, aiming to categorize oxacillin–resistant CoNS species recovered from blood culture specimens of inpatients at the UNESP Hospital das Clínicas in Botucatu, Brazil, over a 20&ndash...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Zhenwei Yu, Lingyan Yu, Jianping Zhu
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsA. baumannii ST2 producing 16S rRNA methylase ArmA has been spreading in medical settings in Myanmar.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionOverexpression in efflux pump transporter genes together with mutations in ERG11 pave the way to fluconazole resistance among C. tropicalis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on C. tropicalis fluconazole resistance mechanism from North India region.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionTigcycline induced changes in the expression of some related genes in A. baumannii, which may be the main reason for its increased drug resistance.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Rayane Rafei, Malaik Hawli, Marwan Osman, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer HamzeAbstractThis review aimed to provide an updated scenario of the Group A Streptococcus (GAS) epidemiology in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) region with a special spotlight on the most prevalent emm types and macrolide resistance profiles. While the burden of invasive GAS infections is elusive to assess in the MENA region, the GAS prevalence ranged from 2.5% to up 42.4% in pharyngitis patients and from 2.4% to up 35.4% in healthy ca...
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe findings showed the presence of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria isolated from commercially available dietary supplements. As multidrug resistance is a serious emerging issue and the risk of drug resistant gene transfer to commensals or pathogens of the gut is inevitable, the safety of probiotics has become a major criterion of interest. The findings of this study would serve as a platform for further screening and characterization of the determinants of antibiotic resistance and the genetic mechanisms of resistance.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionThe corresponding treatment effect estimate for nitrofurantoin was 26.8%, which supports a conservative non-inferiority margin of 12.5% and is consistent with the recently published draft FDA guidance. The findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis inform future antibacterial trials by providing non-inferiority margin justification.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 20Author(s): Laura Mazzuti, Taulant Melengu, Francesca Falasca, Marianna Calabretto, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Ivano Mezzaroma, Giancarlo Iaiani, Martina Spaziante, Gabriella d’Ettorre, Caterina Fimiani, Vincenzo Vullo, Guido Antonelli, Ombretta TurrizianiAbstractObjectivesTransmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV-1 genetic diversity may affect treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes. Here we describe the circulating viral subtypes and estimate the prevalence of drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve...
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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