Bone targeted delivery of Salmon calcitonin hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for sublingual osteoporosis therapy (SLOT)
We present salmon calcitonin (SCT) loaded Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-NPs) for sublingual osteoporosis therapy. Surface stabilized HAP-NPs were prepared by aqueous precipitation. SCT was loaded by ionic complexation, as confirmed by FTIR. SCT-HAP-NPs exhibited high loading efficiency (~85%), average size (~100 nm), and zeta potential (~ − 25 mv). Stability of SCT was established by circular dichroism spectroscopy and HPLC analysis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed deep penetration of SCT-HAP-NPs into the mucosa with>4-fold enhancement in permeability relative to SCT solution. Sublingual SCT-HAP-NPs revealed relative bioavailability of ~15% compared to the subcutaneous injection in rabbits (200iu). Significant and comparable improvement in serum biomarkers with increase in bone mass and mechanical strength and decreased bone erosion compared to subcutaneous SCT was confirmed in ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis rat model. Such comparable pharmacodynamic effect at the same dose suggested targeted bone delivery and promise of sublingual SCT-HAP-NPs as a non-invasive alternative to the injection.Graphical AbstractSublingual SCT-HAP-NPs revealed deep and enhanced sublingual permeation with good bio-enhancement. Improved mechanical strength and bone mass density, with decrease in number of resorption pits suggested bone targeting and improved efficacy of SCT-HAP-NPs.
AbstractSummaryWe found that the MRI T2* value is moderately negatively correlated with the bone mineral density assessed with quantitative computed tomography in evaluating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and may have some potential in assessing severity of lumbar osteoporosis for scientific research.PurposeTo investigate the T2* quantitative measurement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with the bone mineral density (BMD) values evaluated with quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in women with postmenopausal lumbar vertebrae osteoporosis.Materials and methodsEighty-seven postmenopausal women ...
ConclusionOur simulations indicate that up to 50% reduction in radiation dose through sparse sampling can be used for FE-based prediction of femoral failure load. Sparse-sampled MDCT may allow fracture risk prediction and treatment monitoring in osteoporosis with less radiation exposure in the future.
ConclusionThe proposed deep learning-based system demonstrated the potential to automatically perform opportunistic osteoporosis screening using LDCT scans obtained for lung cancer screening.Key Points• Osteoporosis is a prevalent but underdiagnosed condition that can increase the risk of fracture.• A deep learning-based system was developed to fully automate bone mineral density measurement in low-dose chest computed tomography scans.• The developed system achieved high accuracy for automatic opportunistic osteoporosis screening using low-dose chest computed tomography scans obtained for lung cancer screening.
Osteoporosis is a silent disease characterized by a low bone mineral density (BMD), which is associated with a deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Accordingly, patients with osteoporosis have a higher fracture risk compared to the general population (1). The diagnosis of osteoporosis is usually established using a bone density scan (DEXA). The world health organization (WHO) defines osteoporosis as a - 2.5 standard deviation compared to the mean of a healthy young population (1,2). BMD varies with age and gender, as well as with life habits such as physical activity (3,4) and nutrition (5).
ConclusionsSignificant associations between infant milk feeding and lumbar spine BMD in males indicate that breastmilk may be protective for the bone health of male babies. The evidence presented here underscores the potential lifelong benefits of breastfeeding and may highlight the differences between osteoporotic risk factors for males and females.
ConclusionBoth lean mass and fat mass are significant predictors of BMD. To preserve BMD maintenance or increase of lean mass is more effective than fat mass. BMI correlates well with body composition; however, we recommend the use of direct measures of body fat and muscle to make this relation more interpretable. Total Body DXA is a readily available diagnostic tool which provides high-valued information about body composition.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patient navigation improves outcomes in various clinical contexts, but has not been evaluated in secondary fracture prevention. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients, age 50 + from April to October, 2016 hospitalized with fragility fracture contacted by a patient navigator. Patients were identified using an electronic tool extracting data from electronic medical records which alerted the patient navigator to contact patients by phone post-discharge to schedule appointments to "High-Risk Osteoporosis Clinic" (HiROC) and Dual-energy X-ray Absorpti...
(Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY) With an X-ray combination technique, scientists have traced nanocarriers for tuberculosis drugs within cells with very high precision. The method combines two scanning X-ray measurements and can locate minute amounts of metals in biological samples at very high resolution, as the team reports in the journal Scientific Reports. To illustrate its versatility, the researchers have also used the combination method to map the calcium content in human bone, an analysis that can benefit osteoporosis research.
ConclusionsPrior height loss is associated with a small but significant increase in risk of incident fracture at all skeletal sites independent of other clinical risk factors and competing mortality as considered by FRAX. Prior weight loss only increases risk for subsequent hip fracture.
AbstractSummaryLumbar spine volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can discriminate between postmenopausal women with low areal BMD with and without vertebral fractures. QCT provides a 3D measure of BMD, excludes the vertebral posterior elements and accounts for bone size. This knowledge could contribute to effective treatment targeting of patients with low BMD.IntroductionWe evaluated the ability of lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), trabecular bone score (TBS) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) to discriminate between postmenopausal women with l...