The histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin spares normal tissues while acting as an effective radiosensitiser in bladder tumours in vivo.

The class I histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin sensitises bladder cancer cells to ionising radiation (IR) and delays tumour growth after IR. The treatment romidepsin + IR did not increase the normal tissue toxicity caused by radiation to the surrounding normal bowel incorporated in the radiation field, acutely at 3.75 days post-radiation or later at 29 weeks. Romidepsin treatment impaired both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathways.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research

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RARITAN, N.J., February 3, 2020 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today multiple data presentations from a robust solid tumor portfolio that will be featured at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary (ASCO GU) Cancers Symposium, taking place February 13-15 in San Francisco. Company-sponsored data presentations will include clinical results for ERLEADA® (apalutamide) and niraparib in prostate cancer; and BALVERSA™ (erdafitinib) in bladder cancer. “We are committed to improving outcomes in patients with prostate and bladder cancer where high unmet ...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
ConclusionsClosure of VVF is a significant challenge, with an initial success rate of 20% and an overall success rate of only 25%. Seventy percent required primary or secondary urinary diversion. Vaginal surgery was utilised in the majority to try to avoid a hostile pelvis, but the surgical approach should be tailored to individual circumstances.
Source: International Urogynecology Journal - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Abstract Tobacco smoke's harmful effects are well-known; the harmful effects of tobacco smoke have been well-investigated. Nicotine in tobacco smoke contributes to the pathogenesis of various conditions, such as lung cancer, coronary artery disease and asthma. A decade ago, a seemingly safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes was introduced- the E-cigarette. However, studies have found that E-cigarette smoke (ECS) not only induces DNA damage but also reduces DNA repair activity via BER and NER pathways. Further research conducted with cells damaged by Ultra-Violet (UV) light or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) indicates th...
Source: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Commun Signal Source Type: research
Untergasser G Abstract Pathologic downstaging (pDS) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is one of the most important predictors of survival in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The use of NAC is limited as pDS is only achieved in 30% to 40% of cases and predictive biomarkers are still lacking. We performed a comprehensive immuno-molecular biomarker analysis to characterize the role of immune cells and inhibitory checkpoints, genome-wide frequencies of copy number alterations, mutational signatures in whole exome and tumor mutational burden in predicting NAC response. Our retrospective study included 23 primary ...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract We aimed to investigate the biological function of MELK and the therapeutic potential of OTSSP167 in human bladder cancer (BCa). First, we observed overexpression of MELK in BCa cell lines and tissues and found that it was associated with higher tumour stage and tumour grade, which was consistent with transcriptome analysis. High expression of MELK was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in BCa patients, and MELK was found to have a role in the cell cycle, the G1/S transition in mitosis, and DNA repair and replication. Furthermore, BCa cells presented significantly decreased proliferation capacit...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
;chel R Abstract Bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation following removal of the tumor is the first-line of treatment for urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS), the precursor lesion of most muscle-invasive bladder cancers. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy fails in>50% of cases and second-line radical cystectomy is associated with overtreatment and drastic lifestyle consequences. Given the need for alternative bladder-preserving therapies, we identified genomic alterations (GAs) in urothelial CIS having the potential to predict response to targeted therapies. Laser-capture microdissection was applied t...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research
Mycotic aneurysms, especially those of the upper extremity, are rarely reported in literature. These aneurysms are caused by bacterial endocarditis, and therefore are more commonly seen in patients with an immune-compromised state, including those requiring bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for bladder cancer. Due to the inevitable rupture of mycotic aneurysms, the standard treatment is surgical repair with appropriate secondary antibiotics. Here, we present a unique case of a mycotic ulnar artery aneurysm following BCG therapy and repetitive hand trauma in a patient with bladder cancer that was successfully repaired ...
Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of vesicourethral anastomotic stenosis after prostate cancer treatment.Recent FindingsInjectable scar modulating agents administered at the time of direct visual internal urethrotomy of vesicourethral anastomotic stenoses have been shown to improve endoscopic treatment outcomes. Trials are ongoing to find the optimal agent and delivery system. Novel tissue engineering techniques are in development and hold promise.SummaryVesicourethral anastomotic stenosis after the treatment of prostate cancer is a challenging complication for patients and...
Source: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
ConclusionSacrospinous ligament suspension for the correction of massive vaginal vault prolapse utilizing PEEK anchors and porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix is a reasonable alternative to transvaginal synthetic mesh repairs.Advantages to this vaginal approach include: 1) Avoidance of laparoscopic risks in a patient with massive ascites, 2) Avoidance of chronic pain, erosion and extrusion associated with synthetic mesh.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Vikram Shaw, Suyash Srivastava, Sanjay K. SrivastavaAbstractThe recent development of high throughput compound screening has allowed drug repurposing to emerge as an effective avenue for discovering novel treatments for cancer. FDA-approved antipsychotic drugs fluspirilene, penfluridol, and pimozide are clinically used for the treatment of psychotic disorders, primarily schizophrenia. These compounds, belong to diphenylbutylpiperidine class of antipsychotic drugs, are the potent inhibitors of dopamine D2 receptor and calcium chan...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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