Prevalence of Infection and Co-Infection and Presence of Rickettsial Endosymbionts in Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Connecticut, USA.

Prevalence of Infection and Co-Infection and Presence of Rickettsial Endosymbionts in Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Connecticut, USA. J Parasitol. 2020 Feb;106(1):30-37 Authors: Pokutnaya D, Molaei G, Weinberger DM, Vossbrinck CR, Diaz AJ Abstract Ixodes scapularis is currently known to transmit 7 pathogens responsible for Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, ehrlichiosis, and Powassan encephalitis. Ixodes scapularis can also be colonized by endosymbiotic bacteria including those in the genus of Rickettsia. We screened 459 I. scapularis ticks submitted to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Tick Testing Laboratory with the objectives to (1) examine differences in infection prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, and Borrelia miyamotoi, (2) evaluate whether prevalence of co-infections occur at the same frequency that would be expected based on single infection, and (3) determine the presence of rickettsial endosymbionts in I. scapularis. The prevalence of infection in I. scapularis was highest with Bo. burgdorferi sensu lato (nymph = 45.8%; female = 47.0%), followed by A. phagocytophilum (nymph = 4.0%; female = 6.9%), Ba. microti (nymph = 5.7%; female = 4.7%), and Bo. miyamotoi (nymph = 0%; female = 7.3%). We also identified rickettsial endosymbionts in 93.3% of I. scapularis. Nymphs were significantly more likely to be infected with Bo. burgdorferi if they were in...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated lower than expected seroprotection against measles among vaccinated children. Understanding the factors that affect host immunity to measles will aid in developing more efficient and effective immunization programs in DRC. PMID: 32057333 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
ConclusionTuberculous mastitis is extremely rare variant of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, it should be kept in the mind of physicians and pathologists while approaching a breast mass, especially in endemic area.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Hridesh Mishra, Byron W P Reeve, Zaida Palmer, Judy Caldwell, Tania Dolby, Charissa C Naidoo, Jennifer G Jackson, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, Andreas H Diacon, Paul D van Helden, Florian M Marx, Robin M Warren, Grant TheronSummaryBackgroundXpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) is a new test for tuberculosis undergoing global roll-out. We assessed the performance of Ultra compared with Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in an HIV-endemic setting where previous tuberculosis is frequent and current test performance is suboptimal.Method...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Social Science &MedicineAuthor(s): Matt MottaAbstractThe VANMaN model provides social scientists with a parsimonious framework for understanding and addressing a wide range of fraudulent health claims, and their behavioral consequences. In this commentary, I demonstrate VANMaN's ability to generate testable corrective health communication messages by applying it to an emerging conspiracy theory; the idea that tick-borne illnesses are the result of failed military bio-terrorism research. I then offer critical reflections on VANMaN that social scientists ought to...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
The malformations of cortical development (most FCD) were the most common pathological type for children cases in China with drug ‐resistant seizures. It was speculated further that the FCD patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery seem to have a higher ratio of being seizure‐free after surgery. AbstractObjectivesThe drug ‐resistant seizures are characterized by frequent and severe onset of seizures in childhood. There is only little literature had extensively explored the types of pathological brain damage in Chinese children cases. The present study aims to investigate the histopathologic findings a...
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Abstract SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can be responsible for life-threatening HSV encephalitis (HSE). The mortality rate of patients with HSE who do not receive antiviral treatment is 70%, with most survivors suffering from permanent neurological sequelae. The use of intravenous acyclovir together with improved diagnostic technologies such as PCR and magnetic resonance imaging has resulted in a reduction in the mortality rate to close to 20%. However, 70% of surviving patients still do not recover complete neurological functions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for a bet...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular (English Edition)Author(s): Liset Sánchez-Ordúz, Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Fabiana Grisanti, M. Centeno, Javier ArbizuAbstractEarly immunotherapy is of paramount importance for a positive outcome in patients suffering acute encephalitis of autoimmune origin (AIE). A new approach for early diagnosis based on clinical presentation and complementary tests has been proposed, but not all these tests may exhibit positive findings in the first weeks. While common forms of AIE (anti-LGI...
Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is caused by inhaling airborne spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Residing in or traveling to areas endemic for Coccidioides is required for the diagnosis; no person-to-person or zoonotic contagion occurs. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis is increasing in endemic areas, and it has been identified as the cause of as many as 17% to 29% of all cases of community-acquired pneumonia in some regions. Obtaining a travel history is recommended when evaluating patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Diagnosis usually relie...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Daniel Nthiwa, Bernard Bett, David Odongo, Eucharia Kenya, Martin Wainaina, Santina Grazioli, Efrem Foglia, Emiliana Brocchi, Silvia AlonsoAbstractA cross-sectional study was carried out to determine foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seroprevalence and identify risk factors of exposure among cattle herds raised in three zones with different types of land use and progressively distant from the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) boundary. We selected five villages purposively; two in zone 1 (area 40 km away from the MMNR). ...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Journal of BiotechnologyAuthor(s): S. Rizzo, P. Imperato, E. Mora-Cárdenas, S. Konstantinidou, P.A. Marcello, D. SblatteroAbstractWest Nile virus is a widespread mosquito-borne human and animal pathogenic virus of increasing importance. The E protein of the viral envelope is critical for attachment and entry into the host cell and has been the target for vaccine design and small molecule inhibitors. Furthermore, the detection of anti-E IgM and IgG antibodies is widely used in serology to diagnose these infections. Here we describe a strategy for the producti...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
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