Unisensory and Multisensory Responses in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): Effects of Spatial Congruence

Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Brian A. Coffman, Felicha T. Candelaria-Cook, Julia M. StephenAbstractWhile it is generally accepted that structural and functional brain deficits underlie the behavioral deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the degree to which these problems are expressed in sensory pathology is unknown. Electrophysiological measures indicate that neural processing is delayed in visual and auditory domains. Furthermore, multiple reports of white matter deficits due to prenatal alcohol exposure indicate altered cortical connectivity in individuals with FASD. Multisensory integration requires close coordination between disparate cortical areas leading us to hypothesize that individuals with FASD will have impaired multisensory integration relative to healthy control participants. Participants’ neurophysiological responses were recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG) during passive unisensory or simultaneous, spatially congruent or incongruent multisensory auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Source timecourses from evoked responses were estimated using multi-dipole spatiotemporal modeling. Auditory M100 response latency was faster for the multisensory relative to the unisensory condition but no group differences were observed. M200 auditory latency to congruent stimuli was earlier and congruent amplitude was larger in participants with FASD relative to controls. Somatosensory ...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Identifying these predictive factors will allow the design of more effective fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention strategies.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Mela M, Flannigan K, Anderson T, Nelson M, Krishnan S, Chizea C, Takahashi S, Sanjanwala R Abstract Individuals with a history of offending behavior show high rates of mental disorder as well as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Neurocognitive impairments are common in both mental disorders and FASD and may interface with offending behavior. Understanding these impairments could effectively inform clinical considerations among this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the life experiences and examine the neurocognitive profile of a group of adult forensic psychiatric outpatients....
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law - Category: Medical Law Tags: J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Source Type: research
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) affects many aspects of physiology and behavior, including brain development. Specifically, ethanol can influence expression of genes important for brain growth, including chromatin modifiers. Ethanol can also increase apoptotic cell death in the brain and alter epigenetic profiles such as modifications to histones and DNA methylation. Although differential sex outcomes and disruptions to the function of multiple brain regions have been reported in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the majority of our knowledge on molecular epigenetic and apoptotic dysregulation in PAE is based on data...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can generate a multitude of deficits in the offspring. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, or FASD, describe a palette of potentially life-long phenotypes that result from exposure to ethanol during human gestation. There is no cure for FASD and cognitive-behavioral therapies typically have low success rates, especially in severe cases. The neocortex, responsible for complex cognitive and behavioral function, is altered by prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE). Supplementation with choline, an essential nutrient, during the prenatal ethanol insult has been associa...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
(University of Rochester) Children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) -- caused by prenatal alcohol exposure -- often face lifelong developmental, cognitive and behavioral problems. But the children are not the only ones who struggle; often their parents and caretakers do, too. A new study by University of Rochester researchers examines how FASD caregivers' perceived confidence in and the frequency of self-care is related to stress, parenting attitudes, and family needs.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
ConclusionsCaregivers use a variety of strategies and face significant obstacles in self-care. Confidence in self-care may be associated with lower stress and greater satisfaction in the parenting role.
Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The results of the current study indicate that FAS and FASD are prevalent disorders in Brazil, and more policies targeting alcohol intake during pregnancy must be developed. PMID: 31984499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2020Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 72Author(s): Daniel E. Lidstone, Faria Z. Miah, Brach Poston, Julie F. Beasley, Janet S. DufekAbstractBackgroundPostural control deficits are commonly reported in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, identification of specific postural sway features that differentiate ASD from other neurodevelopmental disorders has not been examined. The current study employs a cross-syndrome approach by comparing postural sway area and direction-specific features of sway magnitude, sway velocity, and sway complexity between children with AS...
Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
You’ve done it! You’ve taken that last birth control pill, removed your IUD, or stopped using your contraceptive method of choice. You’ve made the decision to try to conceive a pregnancy, and while this is an exciting time in your life, it can also feel overwhelming. There is so much advice around fertility and pregnancy, and sifting through it all just isn’t possible. For many mothers, their goals crystallize around ensuring that their baby is healthy. Evidence-based steps that may prevent birth defects January is Birth Defects Prevention Month, so we want to focus on things you can do to reduce th...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Family Planning and Pregnancy Fertility Vaccines Women's Health Source Type: blogs
Manitoba's new FASD court is designed for people like Everett Redhead, who has some of the wide-ranging symptoms of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. CBC News followed him from his first court date in April to sentencing.
Source: CBC | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: News/Canada/Manitoba Source Type: news
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