A comparative evaluation of serum biochemistry profile and antigenic relatedness among velogenic and mesogenic Avian avulavirus 1 infection in chickens and pigeons

AbstractNewcastle disease (ND), caused by virulentAvian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects variety of avian species around the globe. Several AAvV 1 viruses of different genotypes have recently emerged with varying clinical impacts on their susceptible hosts. Although experimental infection with velogenic and mesogenic strains in chickens and pigeons is well-studied, nevertheless, there exists a paucity of data for comparative variations in serum biochemistry profile of susceptible hosts upon challenge with isolates of varying pathogenicities. With this background, a comparative assessment of a range of serum biochemical parameters was made following challenge with duck-originated velogenic strain (sub-genotype VIIi; MF437287) and pigeon-originated mesogenic strain (sub-genotype VIm; KU885949) in chickens and pigeons. For each of the isolate, commercial broiler chickens and wild pigeons were challenged (10–6.51 EID50/0.1  mL for sub-genotype VIIi and 10–6.87 EID50/0.1  mL sub-genotype Vim) separately via intranasal and intraocular route. Sera were collected on 0, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th day post-infection (dpi), and processed for quantitative analysis of different biochemical parameters. By day 3 post-infection (pi), a substantial decrease (p 
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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any Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus discovered in South Africa in 1959, has spread to many European countries over the last 20 years. The virus is currently a major concern for animal health due to its expanding host range and the growing number of avian mass mortality events. Although human infections with USUV are often asymptomatic, they are occasionally accompanied by neurological complications reminiscent of those due to West Nile virus (another flavivirus closely related to USUV). Whilst USUV actually appears less threatening than some other emergent arboviruses, the lessons learned from ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
The global prevalence of economic primary infection of poultry by H9N2 virus, including the Lineage A, panzootic group ME1, and associated with secondary infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), is alarming to...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
In this study, one of the largest to date, we used a multi-facetted approach to identify QTL regions (QTLR) influencing resistance to MDV, including an F6 population from a full-sib advanced intercross line (FSIL) between two elite commercial layer lines differing in resistance to MDV, RNA-seq information from virus challenged chicks, and genome wide association study (GWAS) from multiple commercial lines. Candidate genomic elements residing in the QTLR were further tested for association with offspring mortality in the face of MDV challenge in eight pure lines of elite egg-layer birds. Thirty-eight QTLR were found on 19 c...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2020Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Claire Hautefeuille, Billal Azzouguen, Simon Mouchel, Gwenaëlle Dauphin, Marisa Peyre
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
While the majority of influenza-infected individuals show no or mild symptomatology, pregnant women are at higher risk of complications and infection-associated mortality. Although enhanced lung pathology and dysregulated hormones are thought to underlie adverse pregnancy outcomes following influenza infection, how pregnancy confounds long-term maternal anti-influenza immunity remains to be elucidated. Previously, we linked seasonal influenza infection to clinical observations of adverse pregnancy outcomes, enhanced lung and placental histopathology, and reduced control of viral replication in lungs of infected pregnant mo...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Automated systems for high-input data collection and data storage have led to exponential growth in the availability of information. Such datasets and the tools applied to them have been referred to as 'big data'. Starting with a systematic review of the terms 'informatics, bioinformatics and big data' in animal health this special issue of AHRR illustrates some big-data applications with papers on how the use of various omics methods may be used to facilitate the development of improved diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines for foodborne pathogens in poultry and on how a better understanding of rumen m...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research
AbstractAvian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) has been recognized as a respiratory pathogen of turkey and chickens for a long time. Recently, a crescent awareness of aMPV, especially subtype B, clinical and economic impact has risen among European researchers and veterinarians. Nevertheless, the knowledge of its epidemiology and evolution is still limited. In the present study, the broadest available collection of partial G gene sequences obtained from European aMPV-B strains was analyzed using different phylodynamic and biostatistical approaches to reconstruct the viral spreading over time and the role of different hosts on its ev...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract SUMMARYIn recent decades, several new diseases have emerged in different geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola virus, Zika virus, Nipah virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs). Recently, a new type of viral infection emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus do not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transm...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2020Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Bahram Shojadoost, Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Tamiru Negash Alkie, Alexander Bekele-Yitbarek, Neda Barjesteh, Adrianna Laursen, Trevor K. Smith, Janan Shojadoost, Shayan Sharif
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect ofB. subtilis spores as adjuvants in chickens administered inactivated avian influenza virus H9N2. Herein, the adjuvanticity ofB. subtilis spores in chickens was demonstrated by enhancement of H9N2 virus-specific IgG responses.B. subtilis spores enhanced the proportion of B cells and the innate cell population in splenocytes from chickens administered both inactivated H9N2 andB. subtilis spores (Spore  + H9N2). Furthermore, the H9N2 and spore administration induced significantly increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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