A comparative evaluation of serum biochemistry profile and antigenic relatedness among velogenic and mesogenic Avian avulavirus 1 infection in chickens and pigeons

AbstractNewcastle disease (ND), caused by virulentAvian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects variety of avian species around the globe. Several AAvV 1 viruses of different genotypes have recently emerged with varying clinical impacts on their susceptible hosts. Although experimental infection with velogenic and mesogenic strains in chickens and pigeons is well-studied, nevertheless, there exists a paucity of data for comparative variations in serum biochemistry profile of susceptible hosts upon challenge with isolates of varying pathogenicities. With this background, a comparative assessment of a range of serum biochemical parameters was made following challenge with duck-originated velogenic strain (sub-genotype VIIi; MF437287) and pigeon-originated mesogenic strain (sub-genotype VIm; KU885949) in chickens and pigeons. For each of the isolate, commercial broiler chickens and wild pigeons were challenged (10–6.51 EID50/0.1  mL for sub-genotype VIIi and 10–6.87 EID50/0.1  mL sub-genotype Vim) separately via intranasal and intraocular route. Sera were collected on 0, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th day post-infection (dpi), and processed for quantitative analysis of different biochemical parameters. By day 3 post-infection (pi), a substantial decrease (p 
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Authors: Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Cavecchia I Abstract The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) is currently, March 2020, affecting more than 100000 people worldwide and, according to the WHO (World Health Organization), a pandemic is shortly expected. The virus infects the lower respiratory tract and causes severe pneumonia and mortality in approximately 10% and 3-5%, respectively, of cases, mainly among the elderly and/or people affected by other diseases. AHCC is an α-glucan-based standardized mushroom extract that has been extensively investigated as an immunostimulant both in animals and/or in hu...
Source: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol Source Type: research
The northern side of Chatuchak Weekend Market feels a bit like Noah has hit hard times and decided to offload the entire contents of his Ark. In wooden cages, bright-plumed fighting cocks squawk and peck. Around the corner are snakes in plastic takeout containers, prices scrawled on them in sharpie. Hairless squirrel kits snooze in a pile as a meerkat and giant iguana gaze on. A pygmy monkey leaps about with a furious scowl, perhaps indignant at the 30,000 baht ($950) price tag fixed to his enclosure. Across the narrow alleyway, a lynx prowls restlessly within its cage. “He’s 250,000 baht [$7,900],” says ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 News Desk overnight Source Type: news
AbstractChitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) represent an efficient vaccination tool to deliver immunogenic antigens to the antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which subsequently stimulate protective immune responses against infectious diseases. Herein, we prepared CNPs encapsulating mRNA molecules followed by surface coating with conserved H9N2 HA2 and M2e influenza proteins. We demonstrated that CNPs efficiently delivered mRNA molecules into APCs and had effectively penetrated the mucosal barrier to reach to the immune initiation sites. To investigate the potential of CNPs delivering influenza antigens to stimulate protective immu...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
e R Abstract Rotavirus A (RVA) is a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans and mammalian animals, and has also been abundantly detected in avian species. Avian RVA infection is associated with diarrhea, reduced growth and increased mortality, leading to economic losses in the poultry industry. Avian RVA forms a unique genetic clade within the whole RVA species. However, up to now, only a few full-length avian RVA genomes have been published and only a small number of avian RVA strains have been adapted to grow in cell culture for subsequent studies. Here, the four cell culture-adapted chicken RVA strains 02V0002...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
In this study, we have tested the efficacy of a human plasma-derived IgG product (FLU-IGIV) against seasonal influenza in mouse and ferret models of influenza infection. FLU-IGIV successfully protected mice (100% survival) against lethal influenza infection. Also, the survival rate observed with FLU-IGIV treatment was better than the survival rate observed with oseltamivir (60% survival). FLU-IGIV significantly reduced the viral load in the lungs compared to placebo (PBS) in ferrets infected with influenza A/California/July 2009 (H1N1pdm09) virus. Overall, these studies demonstrate the efficacy of human plasma-derived FLU-...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Authors: Malik YS, Sircar S, Bhat S, Sharun K, Dhama K, Dadar M, Tiwari R, Chaicumpa W Abstract Coronaviruses are the well-known cause of severe respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in a wide range of hosts including man, mammals, fish, and avian. The scientific interest on coronaviruses increased after the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreaks in 2002-2003 followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). This decade's first CoV, named 2019-nCoV, emerged from Wuhan, China, and declared as "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" on Ja...
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research
AbstractThe reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) group of retroviruses infects a wide range of avian species, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, quail, and prairie chickens. The infection can result in immunosuppression, runting syndrome, high mortality, acute reticular cell neoplasia, or T- and/or B-cell lymphoma. One PCR positive chicken spleen sample obtained in a previous study in addition to one Marek ʼs disease and three fowl pox (FP) vaccine samples were investigated in this study. A PCR assay was performed to detect the presence of REV provirus DNA in these samples. The results indicated the contamination of ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
“Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world,” observes Albert Camus in his novel The Plague. “Yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet plagues and wars always take people by surprise.” Camus was imagining a fictional outbreak of plague in 1948 in Oran, a port city in northwest Algeria. But at a time when the world is reeling from a very real microbial emergency sparked by the emergence of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, central China, his observations are as pertinent a...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
Why are some people better able to fight off the flu than others? Part of the answer, according to a new study, is related to the first flu strain we encounter in childhood.Scientists from UCLA and the University of Arizona have found that people ’s ability to fight off the flu virus is determined not only by the subtypes of flu they have had throughout their lives, but also by the sequence in which they are been infected by the viruses. Their study is published in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens.The research offers an explanation for why some people fare much worse than others when infected with the...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: The LIPS method could differentiate between sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated animals. However, in human samples obtained more than 6 months after the pandemic, LIPS was specific, but not sufficiently sensitive for ascertaining cases by exposure. PMID: 31955522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Influenza Other Respir Viruses Source Type: research
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