The Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Malaria Parasite Transmission

Coendemicity between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and malaria, respectively, occurs in several regions around the world. Although the impact of the interaction between these two organisms is not well understood, it is thought that the outcome of either disease may be negatively influenced by coinfection. Therefore, it is important to understand how current first-line antiretroviral therapies (ART) might impact Plasmodium infection in these regions. Here, we describe the effect of 18 antiretroviral compounds and of first-line ART on the blood and sporogonic stages of Plasmodium berghei in vitro and in vivo. We show that the combination zidovudine + lamivudine + lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), employed as first-line HIV treatment in the field, has a strong inhibitory activity on the sporogonic stages of P. berghei and that several non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) have a moderate effect on this stage of the parasite’s life cycle. Our results expose the effect of current first-line ART on Plasmodium infection and identify potential alternative therapies for HIV/AIDS that might impact malaria transmission.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Induction of memory CD8+ T cells is important for controlling infections such as malaria and HIV/AIDS and for cancer immunotherapy. Accurate assessment of antigen-specific (Ag-specific) CD8+ T cells is critical for vaccine optimization and for defining correlates of protection. However, conditions for determining Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses ex vivo using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) may be variable, especially in humans with complex antigens. Here, we used an attenuated whole parasite malaria vaccine model in humans and various experimental infections in mice to show that the duration of antigenic stimulatio...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The study was able to establish higher parasite density among individuals with ≤200 cells/μL than their counterparts with>200 cells/μL of CD4 T-cell levels in PLWHA resident in Western Kenya. Secondly, males significantly had a higher geometrical mean parasite density than females regardless of their CD4 status. It is anticipated that the results from this study could be used/applied in developing interventional measures to address malaria/HIV-AIDS coinfections aimed at saving life, particularly in the sub-Saharan African region where the two infections are rampant. PMID: 31354844 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research
Advances in medical technology continue apace, with sophisticated new medical devices and therapies becoming available on an ongoing basis. However, medical technology often comes at a premium, and for low-resource regions sometimes even relatively b...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Cardiology Critical Care Diagnostics Emergency Medicine ENT Exclusive Genetics Materials Pathology Public Health Source Type: blogs
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers in Japan have discovered that the Plasmodium parasites responsible for malaria rely on a human liver cell protein for their development into a form capable of infecting red blood cells and causing disease. The study, which will be published June 12 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that targeting this human protein, known as CXCR4, could be a way to block the parasite's life cycle and prevent the development of malaria.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives It is interesting that watershed events, such as the loss of Neu5Gc from the glycocalyx of human cells have occurred numerous times in many mammalian and other vertebrate species. These cases of convergent evolution represent precious opportunities for increased understanding of evolutionary processes. In some respects, Neu5Gc is an ideal self-molecule as it is “private” to vertebrates and, based on current data, has yet to be successfully mimicked by microbes. Against the background of this benefit, the loss of Neu5Gc appears paradoxical and may implicate strong selective regimes,...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Segun Fatumo1,2,3*, Tommy Carstensen4, Oyekanmi Nashiru3, Deepti Gurdasani4†, Manjinder Sandhu4,5† and Pontiano Kaleebu1,2† 1Uganda Medical Informatics Centre, MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda 2London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom 3H3Africa Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet) Node, Centre for Genomics Research and Innovation, NABDA/FMST, Abuja, Nigeria 4Human Genetics, Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom 5Division of Computational Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kin...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Jeffrey G. Shaffer1*, Frances J. Mather1, Mamadou Wele2, Jian Li1, Cheick Oumar Tangara2, Yaya Kassogue2, Sudesh K. Srivastav1, Oumar Thiero2, Mahamadou Diakite2, Modibo Sangare2, Djeneba Dabitao2, Mahamoudou Toure2, Abdoulaye A. Djimde2, Sekou Traore2, Brehima Diakite2, Mamadou B. Coulibaly2, Yaozhong Liu1, Michelle Lacey3, John J. Lefante1, Ousmane Koita2, John S. Schieffelin4, Donald J. Krogstad1 and Seydou O. Doumbia2 1Department of Global Biostatistics and Data Science, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States 2Faculty of Medicine and Odontostomatology, Un...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
Instead of mind-boggling inventions, 2018 was the year when national governments, as well as healthcare regulators, started to embrace digital health technologies at scale. The year when Google, Amazon, Apple or Microsoft competed head-to-head for the biggest chunks on the healthcare market, and when the buzzword of the year award went to the blockchain. Here’s our guide to the top digital health stories from last year. 2018: Under the spell of cosmos and microcosmos Every year, The Medical Futurist team sits down and collects the top stories of the past 12 months in healthcare. We put the novelties under the microsc...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Business Future of Medicine Medical Professionals Patients Policy Makers Researchers Top Lists 2018 AI artificial intelligence artificial pancreas blockchain chatbot CRISPR deep learning diabetes digital health digital he Source Type: blogs
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