The influenza NS1 protein modulates RIG-I activation via a strain-specific direct interaction with the second CARD of RIG-I Microbiology
A critical role of influenza A virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is to antagonize the host cellular antiviral response. NS1 accomplishes this role through numerous interactions with host proteins, including the cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor, retinoic acid–inducible gene I (RIG-I). Although the consequences of this interaction have been studied, the complete mechanism by which NS1 antagonizes RIG-I signaling remains unclear. We demonstrated previously that the NS1 RNA-binding domain (NS1RBD) interacts directly with the second caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) of RIG-I. We also identified that a single strain-specific polymorphism in the NS1RBD (R21Q) completely abrogates this interaction. Here we investigate the functional consequences of an R21Q mutation on NS1's ability to antagonize RIG-I signaling. We observed that an influenza virus harboring the R21Q mutation in NS1 results in significant up-regulation of RIG-I signaling. In support of this, we determined that an R21Q mutation in NS1 results in a marked deficit in NS1's ability to antagonize TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination of the RIG-I CARDs, a critical step in RIG-I activation. We also observed that WT NS1 is capable of binding directly to the tandem RIG-I CARDs, whereas the R21Q mutation in NS1 significantly inhibits this interaction. Furthermore, we determined that the R21Q mutation does not impede the interaction between NS1 and TRIM25 or NS1RBD's ability to bind RNA. The data presen...
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: Microbes and InfectionAuthor(s): Keisuke Nishioka, Michihito Kyo, Takaaki Nakaya, Nobuaki Shime
ConclusionsPatients on various solid tumour treatments achieve sero-protection rate congruent with the general population. The sero-protection HIA titres were not sustained at 24 weeks postvaccination.
Comparison of deaths from the coronavirus (COVID-19) with deaths from influenza (flu) and pneumonia. Includes deaths by date of death occurrence and breakdowns by sex and age.
CONCLUSIONS: Promoting asthma self-management education, influenza vaccinations, nebulizers, and spacers can decrease the frequency of healthcare utilization and asthma-related expenditures while improving medication adherence. PMID: 33031709 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: Our results underscore how erroneous reporting of 1 condition can lead to underreporting of other causes of death. Misapplication or misunderstanding of procedures by medical providers, rather than extrinsic factors influencing the reporting process, are key drivers of erroneous cause-of-death reporting. PMID: 33031711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: Available online 7 October 2020Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Rony Atoui, Fady Ebrahim F, Kevin Saroka, John Mireau, Janet E. McElhaney, Gregory Hare
Since its emergence the impact of COVID-19 has been profound, and the public health challenge seem to be the most serious seen in a respiratory virus since the 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic (Soper 1919). Following its emergence in Wuhan, cases of COVID-19 were exported outside of China, mainly by travelers using the global aviation networks (Wu et al., 2020). It should be noted that transboundary spread of viruses is quite common in veterinary medicine (Klausner et al., 2015, 2017, 2018).
The COVID-19 pandemic exerts inflammation-related parasympathetic complications and post-infection manifestations with major inter-individual variability. To seek the corresponding transcriptomic origins for the impact of COVID-19 infection and its aftermath consequences, we sought the relevance of long and short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) for susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. We selected inflammation-prone men and women of diverse ages among the cohort of Genome Tissue expression (GTEx) by mining RNA-seq datasets from their lung, and blood tissues, followed by quantitative qRT-PCR, bioinformatics-based network analyses ...
Publication date: Available online 7 October 2020Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Peng-jun Lu, Anup Srivastav, Tammy A. Santibanez, Ashley Amaya, Jill A. Dever, Jessica Roycroft, Marshica Stanley Kurtz, Walter W. Williams