Reliability of heterophyid antigens in heterologous protection against human schistosomiasis

AbstractSchistosomiasis is a neglected tropical parasitic disease which has been controlled by praziquantel for many decades; however, reemergence of praziquantel resistant strains has been a continuous threat. Therefore, the development of reliable antischistosomal vaccine is significantly demanded for optimal control. In the present study, comparison amongSchistosoma haematobium, Schsitosoma mansoni andPygidiopsis genata crude antigens was carried out by Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hyperimmunization of rabbits with tested parasites ’ crude antigens was done to obtain hyperimmune sera. Western blotting was applied to show cross reactivity between parasites’ crude antigens and either homologous or heterologous sera. Although there was no cross reaction betweenP.genata crude antigens and sera of bothSchistosoma species and vice versa; it is supposed that the immunogenic band at 79  kDa might develop cross reactivity withSchistosma spp. SEA fractionation if used in future studies.
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

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There are several unmet needs in modern immunology. Among them, vaccines against parasitic diseases and chronic infections lead. Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is an excellent example of a silent parasitic invasion that affects millions of people worldwide due to its progression into the symptomatic chronic phase of infection. In search for novel vaccine candidates, we have previously introduced Traspain, an engineered trivalent immunogen that was designed to address some of the known mechanisms of T. cruzi immune evasion. Here, we analyzed its performance in different DNA prime/protein boost pro...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Plasmodium spp.-infected mosquitos inject sporozoites into the skin of a mammalian host during a blood meal. These enter the host's circulatory system and establish an infection in the liver. After a silent metamorphosis, merozoites invade the blood leading to the symptomatic and transmissible stages of malaria. The silent pre-erythrocytic malaria stage represents a bottleneck in the disease which is ideal to block progression to clinical malaria, through chemotherapeutic and immunoprophylactic interventions. RTS,S/AS01, the only malaria vaccine close to licensure, although with poor efficacy, blocks the sporozoite invasio...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Ali Dalir Ghaffari, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Majid PirestaniAbstractToxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a common parasitic disease, affecting almost one-third of the world's population. Currently, there are no effective treatments for inhibiting the formation of chronic tissue cysts in infected hosts. Thus, the production of appropriate vaccines against this pathogen is an important goal to avoid toxoplasmosis. considering the role of rhoptry antigens like ROP16 in virulence and satisfactory immunogenicit...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we generated a model to test available formulations based on the P. vivax MSP119 antigen. The Plasmodium berghei strains ANKA and NK65 were modified to express PvMSP119 instead of the endogenous PbMSP119. The hybrid parasites were used to challenge C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice immunized with PvMSP119-based vaccine formulations. The PvMSP119 was correctly expressed in the P. berghei hybrid mutant lines as confirmed by immunofluorescence using anti-PvMSP119 monoclonal antibodies and by Western blot. Replacement of the PbMSP119 by the PvMSP119 had no impact on asexual growth in vivo. High titers of specific antibodie...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractSchistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematode worms of the genusSchistosoma. The transmission cycle involves human (or other mammalian) water contact with surface water contaminated by faeces or urine, as well as specific freshwater snails acting as intermediate hosts. The main disease-causing species areS. haematobium,S. mansoni andS. japonicum. According to the World Health Organisation, over 250 million people are infected worldwide, leading to considerable morbidity and the estimated loss of 1.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a likely underestimated figure. Sch...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Angela J. Toepp, Christine A. PetersenAbstractImmune control of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of most canine leishmaniosis (CanL), requires a balancing act between inflammatory and regulatory responses. This balance is specifically between the proinflammatory T helper 1 type (Th1) CD4+ T cells that are responsible for controlling parasite replication and T regulatory 1 cells which mediate an immunosuppressive, regulatory, response needed to dampen overabundant inflammation but if predominant, result in CanL progre...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractIdentifying genetic risk factors for parasitic infections such as the leishmaniases could provide important leads for improved therapies and vaccines. Until recently most genetic studies of human leishmaniasis were underpowered and/or not replicated. Here, we focus on recent genome-wide association studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). For VL, analysis across 2287 cases and 2692 controls from three cohorts identified a single major peak of genome-wide significance (Pcombined = 2.76 × 10–17) atHLA-DRB1–HLA-DQA1. HLA-DRB1*1501 and DRB1*1...
Source: Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceAs37 is anA.suum expressed immunodominant antigen that elicited significant protective immunity in mice when formulated with AddaVax™. As37 is highly conserved in other STHs, but not in humans, suggesting it could be further developed as a pan-helminth vaccine against STH co-infections.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study shows the first case of an L. infantum amastin protein associated with distinct delivery systems inducing protection against L. infantum infection and demonstrates an immunogenic effect of this protein in human cells. PMID: 32062145 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cytokine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
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