Biology and pathogenesis of human osteosarcoma.

Biology and pathogenesis of human osteosarcoma. Oncol Lett. 2020 Feb;19(2):1099-1116 Authors: de Azevedo JWV, de Medeiros Fernandes TAA, Fernandes JV, de Azevedo JCV, Lanza DCF, Bezerra CM, Andrade VS, de Araújo JMG, Fernandes JV Abstract Osteosarcoma (OS) is a bone tumor of mesenchymal origin, most frequently occurring during the rapid growth phase of long bones, and usually located in the epiphyseal growth plates of the femur or the tibia. Its most common feature is genome disorganization, aneuploidy with chromosomal alterations, deregulation of tumor suppressor genes and of the cell cycle, and an absence of DNA repair. This suggests the involvement of surveillance failures, DNA repair or apoptosis control during osteogenesis, allowing the survival of cells which have undergone alterations during differentiation. Epigenetic events, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome remodeling and expression of non-coding RNAs have been identified as possible risk factors for the tumor. It has been reported that p53 target genes or those genes that have their activity modulated by p53, in addition to other tumor suppressor genes, are silenced in OS-derived cell lines by hypermethylation of their promoters. In osteogenesis, osteoblasts are formed from pluripotent mesenchymal cells, with potential for self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation into various cell types. This involves complex signaling pathways and multiple factors. Any ...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research

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Abstract Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone malignancy in adolescents and has poor clinical outcomes. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) has recently been shown to be aberrantly expressed in various cancers, yet its role in OS remains elusive. Here, we found that PRMT5 was overexpressed in OS and its overexpression predicted poor clinical outcomes. PRMT5 knockdown significantly triggered pronounced senescence in OS cells, as evidenced by the increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)-stained cells, induction of p21 expression, and upregulation of senescence-associated s...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Materials TodayAuthor(s): Liang Ma, Xiaobo Feng, Hang Liang, Kun Wang, Yu Song, Lei Tan, Bingjin Wang, Rongjin Luo, Zhiwei Liao, Gaocai Li, Xiangmei Liu, Shuilin Wu, Cao YangAbstractAfter an osteosarcoma excision, recurrence, large bone defects, and soft tissue injury are significant challenges for clinicians. Conventional treatment by implanting bone replacement materials can induce bone regeneration after surgery, but this does not prevent bleeding, promote soft tissue repair, or help destroy the residual tumor cells. We attempted to develop a new multifunctional ...
Source: Materials Today - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Authors: Yang L, Liu S, Fang W, Chen J, Chen Y Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of using composite scaffolds of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and bioactive glass (BG) to repair bone defects. PLGA/BG composite scaffolds were prepared by thermally-induced phase separation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology, and liquid (absolute ethanol) replacement was used to calculate the porosity of the scaffold. The biocompatibility and degradation of the scaffold were determined using human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and animal experiments. SEM sh...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
In this study, we hypothesized that moderately and chronically reducing ACh could attenuate the deleterious effects of aging on NMJs and skeletal muscles. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed NMJs and muscle fibers from heterozygous transgenic mice with reduced expression of the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT), VKDHet mice, which present with approximately 30% less synaptic ACh compared to control mice. Because ACh is constitutively decreased in VKDHet, we first analyzed developing NMJs and muscle fibers. We found no obvious morphological or molecular differences between NMJs and muscle fibers of VKDHet and contro...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, traditional Chinese medicine Zi-Ran-Tong (pyrite) extracted fluid rich-in-iron was used as cement liquid to prepare novel iron-loaded brushite bone cement. The microstructure and in vitro biological properties of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the phase composition of the novel cement was dominated by brushite while the surface morphology was significantly changed. Moreover, the cement showed no cytotoxicity to human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. Additionally, the cement not only promoted the osteoblasts adhesion and spread but also enhanced the calcification ability. Therefore, Zi-Ran-Ton...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: BiointerfacesAuthor(s): Yanhua Wang, Na Qin, Caifa Zhao, Jiehua Yuan, Shiqi Lu, Wenjing Li, Huiyao Xiang, Hang HaoAbstractThe invasive spreading of residual osteosarcoma cells becomes a serious threat to human health, urgently needing new bone regenerative biomaterials for orthopedic therapy. Thus, in this work, selenite-substituted hydroxyapatite (SeHA) nanoparticles were prepared for both inhibiting the recurrence of the tumor and accelerating the regenerative repair of bone defect. Physicochemical characterization showed these synthetic...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Materials Letters, Volume 256Author(s): Kai Li, Kaiyong Cai, Qichun Ran, Dianming JiangAbstractClinically, the treatment of large bone defects caused by trauma, tumor resection and other bone diseases remains a significant challenge, especially bone defects at the load-bearing sites. To promote bone regeneration and simultaneously prevent tumor recurrence and bacterial infection after surgical resection of oteosarcoma, we designed biomimetic triphase composite scaffolds comprised of porous Ti6Al4V (pTi), chitosan (CS) and selenium (Se) doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles (HAP-S...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
by Wilson Castillo-Tandazo, Monique F. Smeets, Vincent Murphy, Rui Liu, Charlotte Hodson, J örg Heierhorst, Andrew J. Deans, Carl R. Walkley Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin rash (poikiloderma), skeletal dysplasia, small stature, juvenile cataracts, sparse or absent hair, and predisposition to specific malignancies such as osteosarcoma and hematological neoplasms. RTS is cause d by germ-line mutations inRECQL4, a RecQ helicase family member.In vitro studies have identified functions for the ATP-dependent helicase of RECQL4. However, its specific rolein vivo ...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our findings are the first to provide evidence that PCOLCE plays a critical role in promoting the lung metastasis of osteosarcoma, and this up-regulation of PCOLCE by TWIST1 may lead to a new therapeutic strategy to treat patients with metastatic osteosarcoma.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Authors: Cao Z, Goyal D, Meiler SE, Zhou Y, Dynan WS Abstract Double-strand break (DSB) repair foci are important therapeutic targets. Here we describe platforms for delivery of macromolecules, nanomaterials and nanomedicines to repair foci. The strategy is based on the high affinity of the human 53BP1 protein for modified chromatin present at sites of DNA damage. As proof of concept, we created, expressed, and purified an engineered fragment of 53BP1 and coupled it to fluorescent streptavidin, a model cargo with no intrinsic affinity for repair foci. This binary complex was in turn coupled to the iron carrier prot...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
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