Democratisation in the South African parliamentary Hansard? A study of change in modal auxiliaries

Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Language SciencesAuthor(s): Haidee Kotze, Bertus Van RooyAbstractParliaments are a primary site where political and social democratisation can be seen in action, making parliamentary discourse, as represented in the Hansard of Commonwealth countries, a particularly relevant source of linguistic evidence for the effects of democratisation on language change. South Africa offers an exemplary case of social change which may influence language use. This paper first outlines the historical trajectory of democratisation in the South African parliament. It subsequently sets out to explore patterns of mutual influence between these socio-political changes and changes in the use of English modal auxiliaries of obligation and necessity in a specialised corpus consisting of the South African parliamentary Hansard, sampled at 10-year intervals from 1900 to 2015. The South African data are compared with data from comparable diachronic corpora of the Australian and British Hansard. We interpret our findings in the frame of possible linguistic democratisation aligned with social and political democratisation. Changes in the frequencies of must, should, HAVE to, (HAVE) got to, need and NEED to across the three varieties are reported first, before turning to the semantics of the modals must, should, HAVE to and NEED to. Our findings demonstrate how ongoing language change is receptive to local contexts of use. The data from the South A...
Source: Language Sciences - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Emerging in both vision-dependent and vision-independent paradigms, the results support the hypothesis that the post-tilt bias results from a shift in the internal estimate of direction of gravity, while optokinetic nystagmus seems not to be a major contributor. PMID: 32065807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation - Category: Neuroscience Tags: J Vestib Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: The Portuguese version of the ZBI-4 screen demonstrates good psychometric properties.Clinical implications: These results show the utility of the Portuguese version of ZBI-4 as a short screen for caregiver burden for use in the community to facilitate rapid screening for this important and complex stressor. PMID: 32065071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Gerontologist - Category: Geriatrics Tags: Clin Gerontol Source Type: research
This is a dumb question, but a serious one as well. Do they teach medical students how to start IV's/insert foleys in school/take labs/change a patient? I'm a nurse matriculating in July and am competent in these areas, they even had us start IV's on each other in nursing school. I assumed for some reason that this wouldn't be taught in medical school or if it was it would be very brief because of how much there is that needs to be covered. I say that from the fact that I've never seen a... Do they teach you clinical skills in Medical school?
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medical Students - MD Source Type: forums
ConclusionThis is the largest reported series of outcomes following primary THA/TKA in PDB patients. PDB patients are not at increased risk of surgical complications following primary THA or TKA compared with the general population.Graphical abstractAnteroposterior radiograph of the pelvis of patient with PDB and treated with a cemented total hip arthroplasty.
Source: The Surgeon - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
We report a case of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma mimicking a psoas abscess in a 6-year-old girl which posed significant diagnostic challenges. She presented with a vague two-month history of anaemia, fevers and back and abdominal pain. Axial imaging including MRI suggested a diffuse, inflammatory lesion in the right psoas muscle and she was commenced on an intravenous antibiotic therapy regimen but with little improvement. An open biopsy was performed and histology confirmed Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase 1 positive ALCL. To our knowledge, this is only the second case of ALCL with the tissues adjacent the psoas muscle as the...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
We present the case of an 11-year old boy with mosaic trisomy 13 and an end ileostomy (for gut dysmotility) who presented with a catastrophic gastrointestinal haemorrhage during a prolonged Paediatric Intensive Care (PICU) stay recovering from an episode of presumed sepsis. A normal upper GI endoscopy was followed by a laparoscopy which revealed a small bowel adhesion to the anterior abdominal wall which had facilitated the creation of a jejuno-jejunal fistula that had eroded through a mesenteric artery. The child recovered well after a limited laparotomy and segmental small bowel resection.This case highlights an extremel...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
We describe one such case that was managed by 3D thoracoscopic pneumonectomy and also discuss in detail our review of literature of almost 60 years about this condition.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case ReportsAuthor(s): Ahmed Albishri, Maged A.H. Shoukeer, Khalid shreef, Hamad Hader, Mohamed H. Mazhar Ashour, Hatem Alsherbiny, Eman Ghazwani, Kholood AlkedassyAbstractWe are reporting three cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis from Tohama (the southern region of Saudi Arabia) during the period from September 2016 to September 2017. Although the cases had different pathological sites and clinical presentations, all were treated successfully with a single oral antifungal therapy (Itraconazole) with no need for surgical excisi...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
We present a retroperitoneal IEDC, which was juxtaposed to the inferior vena cava. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been reported before in literature.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case ReportsAuthor(s): Qais Muraveji, Ajmal SherzadAbstractForeign bodies have wide varieties by object and mechanism of insertion in genitourinary tract. It needs careful investigation and evaluation for diagnosing the type of object and choosing best treatment method for self-inserted foreign bodies through the urethra. The presentation in children differs from a penile stricture up to metallic objects for auto stimulations in adolescents. It is believed that psychiatric disorder and mental defects are causes of this event. In this ca...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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