West Nile virus triggers brain inflammation by inhibiting protein degradation

(Hokkaido University) West Nile virus (WNV) inhibits autophagy -- an essential system that digests or removes cellular constituents such as proteins -- to induce the aggregation of proteins in infected cells, triggering cell death and brain inflammation (encephalitis), according to Hokkaido University researchers.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Journal of BiotechnologyAuthor(s): S. Rizzo, P. Imperato, E. Mora-Cárdenas, S. Konstantinidou, P.A. Marcello, D. SblatteroAbstractWest Nile virus is a widespread mosquito-borne human and animal pathogenic virus of increasing importance. The E protein of the viral envelope is critical for attachment and entry into the host cell and has been the target for vaccine design and small molecule inhibitors. Furthermore, the detection of anti-E IgM and IgG antibodies is widely used in serology to diagnose these infections. Here we describe a strategy for the producti...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
In this report, we describe a NS4B antibody against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) NS4B protein that cross-reacts with the NS4B protein of WNV but not of dengue virus (DENV). This JEV NS4B antibody not only recognizes WNV NS4B in infected cells, but also recognizes the NS4B protein expressed using transfection. It is evident from this data that the JEV NS4B antibody is specific to NS4B of WNV but not to NS4B of the four DENV serotypes. The specificity of this antibody may be due to the notable differences that exist between the amino acid sequence identity and antigenic relationships within the NS4B protein of the WNV, DENV, and JEV.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ave;s Leblond Pierre Tritz Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending on the etiological agent and its virulence. However, definite diagnosis generally requires the implementation of combinations of direct and/or indirect screening assays in specialized laboratories. The equine practitioner, involved in a mi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractUsutu virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus initially identified in South Africa in 1959 that is now circulating throughout parts of Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. It is closely related to West Nile virus, and has similar vectors, amplifying bird hosts, and epidemiology. Usutu virus infection can occur in humans and may be asymptomatic or cause systemic (e.g., fever, rash, and hepatitis) or neuroinvasive (e.g., meningitis and encephalitis) disease. Given few reported cases, the full clinical spectrum is not known. No anti-viral treatment is available, but it can be largely prevented by avoiding mosqu...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 10: Exposure of Wild Ungulates to the Usutu and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in France in 2009–2014: Evidence of Undetected Flavivirus Circulation a Decade Ago Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12010010 Authors: Bournez Umhang Faure Boucher Boué Jourdain Sarasa Llorente Jiménez-Clavero Moutailler Lacour Lecollinet Beck Abstract: Flaviviruses have become increasingly important pathogens in Europe over the past few decades. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of flaviviruses in France is needed to better define risk areas an...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
esh Kumar West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that has disseminated globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans. MircoRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates various aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses. We previously reported that WNV infection induces upregulation of miR-155 in mice brains. In the current study, we demonstrate the critical role of miR-155 in restricting the pathogenesis of WNV infection in mice. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, miR-155 knockout mice exhibited significantly higher morbidity and mortality after infection with either a lethal strain, WNV NY99, or a non-lethal strain...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Michael W. Gaunt, Duane J. Gubler, John H.-O. Pettersson, Goro Kuno, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Xavier de Lamballerie, Ernest A. Gould, Andrew K. FalconarAbstractSporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-bor...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Sporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-borne dengue viruses (DENV) and Culex-borne flaviviruses. We hypothesized that this incongruence reflects interspecies recombination resulting in ZIKV evasion of cross-protective T-cell immunity. We investigated ZIKV phylogenetic i...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: The appearance of more severe, neuroinvasive symptoms following WNV infections is also characteristic of Hungary. The treatment of the infection is supportive, including giving pain relievers and the management of secondary infections. It is important to consider the possibility of a WNV infection in the case of a neurological disease of unknown origin, particularly if the symptoms indicate encephalitis. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(51): 2026-2035. PMID: 31838862 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Orvosi Hetilap - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Orv Hetil Source Type: research
Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) causes West Nile fever and West Nile encephalitis. Because infection by WNV creates serious public health problems, its simple, rapid, and visual detection is very important in clinical practice, especially in resource-limited laboratories. We have developed a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive internally controlled reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification (RTRAA) assay to detect WNV, using both real-time fluorescence and the lateral flow dipstick (LFD) at 39.0 °C for 30 min. The analytical sensitivity of the RT-RAA assay was 10 plasmid copies and 1.6 pfu per reac...
Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Biomed Environ Sci Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Encephalitis | Infectious Diseases | Neurology | West Nile Virus