Investigations into the carrier-state of Theileria sp. (buffalo) in cattle

Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Ronel Pienaar, P. Christo Troskie, Antoinette I. Josemans, Fred T. Potgieter, Boitumelo B. Maboko, Abdalla A. Latif, Ben J. MansAbstractThe Theileria are apicomplexan parasites transmitted by ticks to vertebrate hosts. Most Theileria species exhibit some form of host or vector specificity, since under endemic conditions only a limited number of tick species act as vectors and not all vertebrate hosts are able to maintain a persistent carrier state. Data for Theileria sp. (buffalo) suggest host specificity for African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). However, T. sp. (buffalo) infections in cattle co-grazing with African buffalo have been reported in Kenya and schizonts were cultured from these infected cattle, raising questions regarding host specificity. A Corridor disease outbreak in 2013 on a ranch in South Africa where cattle co-grazed with Theileria parva and T. sp. (buffalo) infected buffalo presented the opportunity to investigate the possible carrier-state of T. sp. (buffalo) in cattle using real-time PCR analysis. Almost all buffalo (n=19, 95%) were infected with T. sp. (buffalo) and showed CP values (22-20) indicative of high parasitemia similar to that observed for buffalo in endemic areas. Conversely, only ∼14-27% cattle (n=69, 100, 96) were positive with CP values (31-40) suggesting low parasitemia and a carrier state epidemiology differ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

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by Ernest Diez Benavente, Monica Campos, Jody Phelan, Debbie Nolder, Jamille G. Dombrowski, Claudio R. F. Marinho, Kanlaya Sriprawat, Aimee R. Taylor, James Watson, Cally Roper, Francois Nosten, Colin J. Sutherland, Susana Campino, Taane G. Clark AlthoughPlasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, they not always prioritised by elimination programmes.P.vivax is resilient and poses challenges through its ability to re-emerge from dormancy in the human liver. With observed growing drug-resistance and the increasing reports of life-threatening infections, new tools to inform...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Balantidium coli (B. coli) is an emerging ciliated protozoan parasite of zoonotic importance which causes a disease balantidiasis in a variety of host species including pigs, camels, ruminants, equines and even human. This disease has a cosmopolitan distribution with high prevalence rates in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world due to favorable geo-climatic conditions for the development and survival of the parasite in these regions. Main reservoir hosts for this pathogen are pigs and animals; acquire infection mainly by the ingestion of the food or water contaminated with the porcine feces. The i...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In cases of VL suspicion and when the parasite is not observed in the bone marrow aspiration, the proposed model could be useful in discriminating between patients with and without VL, allowing to take a therapeutic decision while awaiting the definitive diagnosis. PMID: 31466803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research
The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a reliable method, applicable in biomonitoring, for the rapid detection of infectious oocysts by cell culture of their sporocysts combined with qPCR (sporocyst-CC-qPCR), and (ii) to adapt this method to blue and zebra mussels experimentally contaminated by oocysts with the objective to use these organisms as sentinels of aquatic environments. Combining mechanical treatment and bead beating leads to the release of 84 ± 14% of free sporocysts. The sporocyst-CC-qPCR can detect fewer than ten infectious oocysts in water within four days (one day of contact and three days ...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Climate change is the greatest health challenge of the 21st century, and threatens all aspects of society, says the WHO in its COP24 Special Report. What could digital health technologies do to support the fight against the climate crisis? How could healthcare processes, facilities, medical devices become more sustainable? As it is humanity’s priority to mitigate the worsening as well as the impact of rising temperatures and extreme weather events, we tried to figure out what role digital health could assume here. We found many options – and even more possibilities for future development. The climate crisis...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine air asthma climate climate catastrophe climate change climate crisis digital digital health efficient Healthcare mosquito optimize resilience solar sustainability technology Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Trichinellosis is an old disease, still present in our country, but often forgotten by general practitioners and infectious diseases specialists. Our review shows how it is impossible to define a region with a negligible risk, and how physicians and veterinarians should be regularly trained about this parasitic disease. A strict surveillance, especially on meat products from endemic countries or from wild animals is necessary to considerably reduce the risk of acquiring the infection.
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Conclusion Trichinellosis is an old disease, still present in our country, but often forgotten by general practitioners and infectious diseases specialists. Our review shows how it is impossible to define a region with a negligible risk, and how physicians and veterinarians should be regularly trained about this parasitic disease. A strict surveillance, especially on meat products from endemic countries or from wild animals is necessary to considerably reduce the risk of acquiring the infection.
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez, Carolina Zapata-Zapata, Omar Triana-Chávez, Ana M. Mejía-JaramilloAbstractSurra is a zoonotic disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi, affecting the health and production of the livestock significantly. There are several methods to diagnose this disease, which have different principles, sensitivity, and specificity. Among them, the serological techniques using T. evansi as antigen are powerful tools for its epidemiological surveillance. However, they are poorly used due to inefficient in ...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide are the drugs of choice. Resistance to common antigiardial drugs has increased in recent years. As such, the search for new molecular targets for antigiardial drugs is urgently needed. In general, treatment of asymptomatic carriers is not recommended. Purification of water supply is an important preventive measure. PMID: 31210116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov Source Type: research
by Laura Botana, Ana Victoria Ibarra-Meneses, Carmen S ánchez, Alicia Castro, Juan Victor San Martin, Laura Molina, Jose Manuel Ruiz-Giardin, Eugenia Carrillo, Javier Moreno Concomitant infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and theLeishmania parasite is a growing public health problem, the result of the former spreading to areas where the latter is endemic.Leishmania infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, but the proportion of HIV+ individuals in contact with the parasite who remain asymptomatic is not known. The aim of the present work was to examine the use of cytokine relea...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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