2020 Epilepsy Benchmarks Area III: Improved Treatment Options for Controlling Seizures and Epilepsy-Related Conditions Without Side Effects.

2020 Epilepsy Benchmarks Area III: Improved Treatment Options for Controlling Seizures and Epilepsy-Related Conditions Without Side Effects. Epilepsy Curr. 2020 Jan 22;:1535759719895279 Authors: Traynelis SF, Dlugos D, Henshall D, Mefford HC, Rogawski MA, Staley KJ, Dacks PA, Whittemore V, Poduri A, National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)/American Epilepsy Society (AES) Epilepsy Research Benchmark Stewards Abstract The goals of Epilepsy Benchmark Area III involve identifying areas that are ripe for progress in terms of controlling seizures and patient symptoms in light of the most recent advances in both basic and clinical research. These goals were developed with an emphasis on potential new therapeutic strategies that will reduce seizure burden and improve quality of life for patients with epilepsy. In particular, we continue to support the proposition that a better understanding of how seizures are initiated, propagated, and terminated in different forms of epilepsy is central to enabling new approaches to treatment, including pharmacological as well as surgical and device-oriented approaches. The stubbornly high rate of treatment-resistant epilepsy-one-third of patients-emphasizes the urgent need for new therapeutic strategies, including pharmacological, procedural, device linked, and genetic. The development of new approaches can be advanced by better animal models of seizure initiation that represent salient features of huma...
Source: Epilepsy Currents - Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

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In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. These proliferating mature SCs and HCs maintain their respective identities. Moreover, when presented with HC induction signals, reprogrammed adult SCs transdifferentiate into HC-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, our data suggest that regenerated HC-like cells likely possess functional transduction channels and are able to form connections with adult auditory neurons. Epige...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Ashrafi MR, Amanat M, Garshasbi M, Kameli R, Nilipour Y, Heidari M, Rezaei Z, Tavasoli AR Abstract Introduction: Leukodystrophies constitute heterogenous group of rare heritable disorders primarily affecting the white matter of central nervous system. These conditions are often under-appreciated among physicians. The first clinical manifestations of leukodystrophies are often nonspecific and can occur in different ages from neonatal to late adulthood periods. The diagnosis is, therefore, challenging in most cases.Area covered: Herein, the authors discuss different aspects of leukodystrophies. The authors used...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
Abstract Purinergic signaling was proposed in 1972, after it was demonstrated that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was a transmitter in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory nerves supplying the guinea-pig taenia coli. Later, ATP was identified as an excitatory cotransmitter in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, and it is now apparent that ATP acts as a cotransmitter in most, if not all, nerves in both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (CNS). ATP acts as a short-term signaling molecule in neurotransmission, neuromodulation, and neurosecretion. It also has potent, long-term (trophic) ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Mind-reading exoskeletons, digital tattoos, 3D printed drugs, RFID implants for recreational purposes: mindblowing innovations come to medicine and healthcare almost every single day. We shortlisted some of the greatest ideas and developments that could give us a glimpse into the future of medicine, but we found so many that we had trouble fitting them into one article. Here are the first ten spectacular medical innovations to watch for. 1) Mixed reality opens new ways for medical education Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality are all technologies opening new worlds for the human senses. While the difference between...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine 3d printing artificial food brain-computer interface cyborg digital tattoos drug development exoskeleton gamification google glass health insurance Healthcare Innovation List Medical education medical techn Source Type: blogs
ns CP Abstract Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in a wide spectrum of hippocampus-dependent functions. Brain pathologies that involve the hippocampus like epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, are commonly associated with cognitive impairments and mood disorders. These insults can affect the neural stem cells and the subsequent neurogenic cascade in the hippocampus, resulting in the induction of aberrant neurogenesis, which is thought to compromise hippocampal network function, thereby hampering hippocampus-dependent behavior. We here summarize recent preclinical literature on hippocamp...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review we have summarized the critical role phagocytosis plays in both CNS homeostasis and disease. While much progress has been made in recent years, many unanswered questions remain. How phagocytosis in the CNS is influenced by numerous factors, such as microenvironment or phagocytic target, have yet to be fully resolved. Additionally, the utilization of novel technologies, including in vivo imaging techniques (217), iPSC-derived microglia (213) and high-throughput screens (66), will likely contribute to further identification of phagocytic pathways and consequences of phagocytosis w...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions Stroke comprises ischemic stroke and ICH. The immuno-inflammatory process is involved in neural plasticity following events such as a hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. After ischemia, astrocytes, microglia, and MDMs play important roles during rehabilitation with the modulation of cytokines or chemokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1. Moreover, MiRNAs are also important posttranscriptional regulators in these glial mitochondrial responses to cerebral ischemia. ICH involves processes similar and different to those seen in ischemia, including neuronal injury, astrocytic and microglial/macrophage activation, and neu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Ryan R. Kelly1,2†, Lindsay T. McDonald1,2†, Nathaniel R. Jensen1,2, Sara J. Sidles1,2 and Amanda C. LaRue1,2* 1Research Services, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, United States 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States The significant biochemical and physiological effects of psychological stress are beginning to be recognized as exacerbating common diseases, including osteoporosis. This review discusses the current evidence for psychological stress-associated mental health disorders as risk factors for os...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Progress in NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Sydney Zarriello, Julian Tuazon, Sydney Corey, Samantha Schimmel, Mira Rajani, Anna Gorsky, Diego Incontri, Bruce D. Hammock, Cesar V. BorlonganAbstractSoluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) degrades epoxides of fatty acids including epoxyeicosatrienoic acid isomers (EETs), which are produced as metabolites of the cytochrome P450 branch of the arachidonic acid pathway. EETs exert a variety of largely beneficial effects in the context of inflammation and vascular regulation. sEH inhibition is shown to be therapeutic in several cardiovascu...
Source: Progress in Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractMany  central nervous system diseases currently lack effective treatment and are often associated with defects in microvascular function, including a failure to match the energy supplied by the blood to the energy used on neuronal computation, or a breakdown of the blood–brain barrier. Pericytes, an u nder-studied cell type located on capillaries, are of crucial importance in regulating diverse microvascular functions, such as angiogenesis, the blood–brain barrier, capillary blood flow and the movement of immune cells into the brain. They also form part of the “glial” scar isolating dam...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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