A new tool for genotoxic risk assessment: Reevaluation of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay using semi-automated scoring following telomere and centromere staining

ConclusionThese approaches can be potentially used to follow-up populations exposed to genotoxic agents and assess cancer risk.Graphical abstract
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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Authors: Sartor O, Yang S, Ledet E, Moses M, Nicolosi P Abstract African American men with prostate cancer are understudied relative to Caucasians with prostate cancer with regard to testing for pathogenic germline DNA repair gene mutations. Herein we evaluate these two populations in a large commercial dataset and compare the detection of pathogenic/likely pathogenic alterations in 14 well annotated DNA repair genes (BRCA2, BRCA1, PALB2, ATM, RAD51C, CHEK2, PMS2, BARD1, BRIP1, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NBN, and RAD51D). Overall, pathogenic or likely pathogenic alterations in these 14 DNA repair genes were less likely to b...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
AbstractBladder cancer (BC) is a frequently diagnosed malignancy affecting predominantly adult and elderly populations. It is expected that due to the longer life time, BC will become even more frequent in the future; thus in consequence, it will represent serious health problem of older society part. The treatment of advanced BC is mostly ineffective due to its very aggressive behavior. So far, no effective targeted therapy is used for BC treatment. Here, we found that BC is characterized by lower protein levels of BRM, INI1, and BAF155 main subunits of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex (CRC) which is involved in globa...
Source: IUBMB Life - Category: Research Authors: Tags: RESEARCH COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a distinct subpopulation within a tumor. They are able to self-renew and differentiate and possess a high capability to repair DNA damage, exhibit low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and proliferate slowly. These features render CSC resistant to various therapies, including radiation therapy (RT). Eradication of all CSC is a requirement for an effective antineoplastic treatment and is therefore of utmost importance for the patient. This makes CSC the prime targets for any therapeutic approach. Albeit clinical data is still scarce, experimental data and first clinical trials give hope th...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: 18 February 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 7Author(s): Mu-Yan Cai, Connor E. Dunn, Wenxu Chen, Bose S. Kochupurakkal, Huy Nguyen, Lisa A. Moreau, Geoffrey I. Shapiro, Kalindi Parmar, David Kozono, Alan D. D’AndreaSummaryCells deficient in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and other anti-cancer agents that induce double-strand DNA breaks. ATM inhibitors may therefore sensitize cancer cells to these agents. Some cancers may also have underlying genetic defects predisposing them to an ATM inhibitor monotherapy response. We have conducted a genome-w...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
el Moss Arginine-specific mono-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+-dependent, reversible post-translational modification involving the transfer of an ADP-ribose from NAD+ by bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) to arginine on an acceptor protein or peptide. ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase 1 (ARH1) catalyzes the cleavage of the ADP-ribose-arginine bond, regenerating (arginine)protein. Arginine-specific mono-ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by bacterial toxins was first identified as a mechanism of disease pathogenesis. Cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates and...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In conclusion, a substantial proportion of TNBC respond to irinotecan. BRCAness, high SLFN11 expression, and RB1 loss are highly predictive of response to irinotecan and the clinical indenoisoquinoline TOP1 inhibitors.
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
M. Wells Amir Abdollahi Radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity often limits the curative treatment of cancer. Moreover, normal tissue relative biological effectiveness data for high-linear energy transfer particles are urgently needed. We propose a strategy based on transcriptome analysis of patient-derived human intestinal organoids (HIO) to determine molecular surrogates for radioresponse of gastrointestinal (GI) organs at risk in a personalized manner. HIO were generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), which were derived from skin biopsies of three patients, including two patients with FANCA deficie...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Dikomey Wittig Arenz The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently altered in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and negative squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and overstimulation is associated with poor prognosis. PI3K drives Akt activation and constitutive signaling acts pro-proliferative, supports cell survival, DNA repair, and contributes to radioresistance. Since the small molecule NVP-BEZ235 (BEZ235) is a potent dual inhibitor of this pathway, we were interested whether BEZ235 could be an efficient radiosensitizer. The 50 nM BEZ235 was found to abrogate endogenous and irradiation-induced pho...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionCNDAG-induced double-strand breaks are repaired mainly through homologous recombination.
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
midt With roles in DNA repair, recombination, replication and transcription, members of the RecQ DNA helicase family maintain genome integrity from bacteria to mammals. Mutations in human RecQ helicases BLM, WRN and RecQL4 cause incurable disorders characterized by genome instability, increased cancer predisposition and premature adult-onset aging. Yeast cells lacking the RecQ helicase Sgs1 share many of the cellular defects of human cells lacking BLM, including hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents and replication stress, shortened lifespan, genome instability and mitotic hyper-recombination, making them invaluable ...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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