Immunomodulatory Properties of Bacterium-Like Particles Obtained From Immunobiotic Lactobacilli: Prospects for Their Use as Mucosal Adjuvants

Non-viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been proposed as antigen delivery platforms called bacterium-like particles (BLPs). Most studies have been performed with Lactococcus lactis-derived BLPs where multiple antigens were attached to the peptidoglycan surface and used to successfully induce specific immune responses. It is well-established that the immunomodulatory properties of LAB are strain dependent and therefore, the BLPs derived from each individual strain could have different adjuvant capacities. In this work, we obtained BLPs from immunomodulatory (immunobiotics) and non-immunomodulatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum strains and comparatively evaluated their ability to improve the intestinal and systemic immune responses elicited by an attenuated rotavirus vaccine. Results demonstrated that orally administered BLPs from non-immunomodulatory strains did not induce significant changes in the immune response triggered by rotavirus vaccine in mice. On the contrary, BLPs derived from immunobiotic lactobacilli were able to improve the levels of anti-rotavirus intestinal IgA and serum IgG, the numbers of CD24+B220+ B and CD4+ T cells in Peyer's patches and spleen as well as the production of IFN-γ by immune cells. Interestingly, among immunobiotics-derived BLPs, those obtained from L. rhamnosus CRL1505 and L. rhamnosus IBL027 enhanced more efficiently the intestinal and systemic humoral immune responses when compared to BLPs from other immunob...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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In this study, we investigated low pH inactivation of viruses including PCV Type 1 (PCV1) and PCV1 removal by cation exchange chromatography (CEX) in the presence of pepsin. Both parvovirus and PCV1 could be effectively inactivated by low pH and PCV1 could be removed by POROS 50HS CEX. The POROS 50HS method presented in this article is helpful for designing other CEX methods for the same purpose and not much difference would be expected for similar product intermediates and same process parameters. While the effectiveness needs to be confirmed for specific applications, the results demonstrate that both low pH (pH 1...
Source: Biotechnology Progress - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children, especially in developing countries. Malnutrition is prevalent in these countries, which may contribute to the decreased oral vaccine efficacy, posing a concern for global health. Neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs closely resemble human infants in their anatomy, physiology, and outbred status and are a unique model to investigate malnutrition, oral live attenuated HRV (AttHRV) vaccination, and subsequent virulent HRV (VirHRV) challenge. We evaluated the impact of malnutrition on AttHRV vaccine efficacy and B cell immune responses in neonatal germf...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ng Sun Hongjun Li Rotavirus (RV) is the major causes of severe diarrhea in infants and young children under five years of age. There are no effective drugs for the treatment of rotavirus in addition to preventive live attenuated vaccine. Recent evidence demonstrates that microRNAs (miRNAs) can affect RNA virus replication. However, the antiviral effect of miRNAs during rotavirus replication are largely unknown. Here, we determined that miR-7 is upregulated during RV replication and that it targets the RV NSP5 (Nonstructural protein 5). Results suggested that miR-7 affected viroplasm formation and inhibited RV replica...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractThe G1P[8] genotype is one of the most common among rotaviruses circulating in the last 40 years. Therefore, this genotype is a component of rotavirus vaccines licensed throughout the world. This paper presents the results of a 35-year (1984 –2019) observation of the circulation of G1P[8] rotaviruses among children under 14 in one region (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) without vaccine pressure. Several complementary approaches were used: RNA electropherotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PCR genotyping, and cDNA sequencing of rot avirus VP4 and VP7 genes. A total of 8375 rotavirus-positive samples were e...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Corrigendum to "Epidemiology study of pediatric primary intussusception aged ≤24 months in pre-rotavirus vaccine era of Jinan, China" [Vaccine 37(11) (2019) 1436-1442]. Vaccine. 2020 Feb 11;: Authors: Yu X, Zhang T, Cui L, Geng X, Zhang J PMID: 32057579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
;Neill Johne Human rotavirus A (RVA) causes acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. The broad use of two vaccines, which are based on RVA strains from Europe and North America, significantly reduced rotavirus disease burden worldwide. However, a lower vaccine effectiveness is recorded in some regions of the world, such as sub-Saharan Africa, where diverse RVA strains are circulating. Here, a plasmid-based reverse genetics system was used to generate simian RVA reassortants with VP4 and VP7 proteins derived from African human RVA strains not previously adapted to cell culture. We were able to rescue 1/3 ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and molecular RV surveillance in the pediatric population of Perugia province, Umbria. Between September 2007 and August 2018, 663 RV-positive stool specimens were collected from children <15 years of age presenting with gastroenteritis to the emergency room of the Perugia province hospitals who were then hospitalized. Yearly hospitalization rates were expressed per 100,000 persons, and denominators were extrapolated from the National Institute of Statistics. During the 10-year surveillance, the epidemiological trend was fluctuating but slightly decreas...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: In December 2010, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) was added to the national immunization program in Israel. The study aim was to examine national reductions in all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations among children aged 0-59 months following the introduction of universal rotavirus immunization in Israel. METHODS: We extracted data from the Israel National Hospital Discharge Database. Hospitalization rates were calculated by dividing the annual number of all-cause AGE and RVGE hospitalizations by the number of children ag...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract Studies conducted at neonatal intensive care units in Pune, western India, suggested early exposure to rotaviruses and predominance of unusual human-bovine-like G12P[11] strains. The whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of a naturally attenuated, culture adapted neonatal strain, (NIV-1740121) revealed multiple-gene reassortment events, containing ROTAVAC® vaccine strain, 116E-like VP4, VP6, NSP3, NSP5 genes, VP7 gene of G12 origin and VP3 gene of porcine ancestry in a human Wa-like backbone. Analysis of 3D structure modeling of the VP7 and VP4 proteins with respect to 116E suggested amino...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
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