The Daisho Peptides Mediate Drosophila Defense Against a Subset of Filamentous Fungi

Fungal infections, widespread throughout the world, affect a broad range of life forms, including agriculturally relevant plants, humans, and insects. In defending against fungal infections, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster employs the Toll pathway to induce a large number of immune peptides. Some have been investigated, such as the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and Bomanins (Boms); many, however, remain uncharacterized. Here, we examine the role in innate immunity of two related peptides, Daisho1 and Daisho2 (formerly IM4 and IM14, respectively), found in hemolymph following Toll pathway activation. By generating a CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of both genes, Δdaisho, we find that the Daisho peptides are required for defense against a subset of filamentous fungi, including Fusarium oxysporum, but not other Toll-inducible pathogens, such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida glabrata. Analysis of null alleles and transgenes revealed that the two daisho genes are each required for defense, although their functions partially overlap. Generating and assaying a genomic epitope-tagged Daisho2 construct, we detected interaction in vitro of Daisho2 peptide in hemolymph with the hyphae of F. oxysporum. Together, these results identify the Daisho peptides as a new class of innate immune effectors with humoral activity against a select set of filamentous fungi.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Purpose of review It is only over the last few decades that the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young South Asian population has been recognized. There has been a tremendous interest in elucidating the causes behind this phenomenon and these efforts have uncovered several mechanisms that might explain the early onset of CAD in this population. The complete risk profile of very young South Asians being affected by premature CAD still remains unknown. Recent findings The existing data fail to completely explain the burden of premature occurrence of CAD in South Asians especially in very young individuals...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research
Background and Objective: Plant extracts can be used as alternatives for controlling food poisoning and preserving foods. Many studies have been carried out on Acacia nilotica fruit flesh, but the seeds have not been investigated. Therefore, a comparative study on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, minerals composition, fatty acid profile and antimicrobial activity of fruit flesh and seeds, was conducted. Materials and Methods: In the present study, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, minerals composition, fatty acid profile and antimicrobial activity were determined using standard methods and analyzed by us...
Source: Research Journal of Medicinal Plant - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions: There were associations between both single nutrients and dietary patterns with tinnitus and hearing difficulties. Although the size of the associations was small, universal exposure for dietary factors indicates that there may be a substantial impact of diet on levels of tinnitus and hearing difficulties in the population. This study showed that dietary factors might be important for hearing health.
Source: Ear and Hearing - Category: Audiology Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
(University of Toronto) New research from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging shows that adults who have low fruit and vegetable intakes have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: 25 February 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 8Author(s): Maurizio Di Marzo, Humberto Herrera-Ubaldo, Elisabetta Caporali, OndÅ™ej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Vicente Balanzà, Ignacio Ezquer, Marta A. Mendes, Stefan de Folter, Lucia Colombo
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
In conclusion, potential biological applications of PF-SeNPs were explored by antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and biocompatibility assays. Materials and Methods Chemicals and Reagents Sodium selenite (98%), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), Tween 80, methanol, acetate buffer, tetracycline, nystatin, rhodamine 123, caspase-3 kit, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle media (DMEM), Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4 (DPBS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) w...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the selective boosting of lung innate immunity is a conceptually advantageous approach for improving the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and fighting antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Introduction Pneumonia constitutes a major cause of death, morbidity and health resource use worldwide. The main causative agents identified in adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are viruses (in 27–30% of cases, the most common being rhinovirus, influenza and coronavirus) and bacteria (14–23% of cases, with a marked predominance of Streptococcus pneumonia...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study, the largest series of infection in MDS patients, seeks to comprehensively analyse infection in this cohort.Method: CT scan, microbiology results and hospital admission ICD codes from January 1999 to April 2017 were analysed for 657 MDS patients enrolled in the South Australian MDS (SA-MDS) registry. Cox regression analysis was performed to ascertain risk factors for developing infection.Results: There were 531 primary and 126 therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) patients with median age of 69.2 (18-97) years. According to Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R), 44.7% of patients were classi...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 637. Myelodysplastic Syndromes-Clinical Studies: Poster I Source Type: research
Authors: Cao J, Gao S, Chen J, Zhu B, Min R, Wang P Abstract The present study prepared 2 types of DNA diagnostic chips based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 18S-28S rDNA, and evaluated their values in the detection of pathogens in intracranial bacterial/fungal infections. A total of 14 probes of bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenza, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Neisseria meningitidis, Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia and coagulase...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Abstract Mediastinitis occurs as a severe complication of thoracic and cardiac surgical interventions and is the result of traumatic esophageal perforation, conducted infections or as a result of lymphogenic and hematogenic spread of specific infective pathogens. Treatment must as a rule be accompanied by antibiotics, whereby knowledge of the spectrum of pathogens depending on the pathogenesis is indispensable for successful antibiotic therapy. Polymicrobial infections with a high proportion of anaerobes are found in conducted infections of the mediastinum and after esophageal perforation. After cardiac surgery St...
Source: Der Chirurg - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Chirurg Source Type: research
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