The value of avian gross pathology in identifying endocrine disrupting properties

Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Regulatory Toxicology and PharmacologyAuthor(s): Diana Temple, Timothy Springer, Sean Gallagher, Gunther du Hoffmann, James R. WheelerAbstractThe European Chemical Agency and European Food Safety Authority recommend that gross pathology findings, from avian reproduction studies, be used to support assessment of potential endocrine disrupting properties of active pesticidal and biocidal substances. In open literature, little information is available on the utility of gross pathology data for informing endocrine evaluations. Here the gross pathology data from historical control groups of 51 northern bobwhite and 51 mallard reproduction tests is analyzed to evaluate the utility of such information. Incidence of gross morphology findings in untreated birds may aid the interpretation of some gross abnormalities, potentially indicative of an endocrine interaction (e.g. reproductive condition). Statistical analysis of the historical control data indicates that gross pathology is not likely to be useful for detecting endocrine effects as abnormalities with relatively high increases in prevalence (more than 20–30%, depending on prevalence in controls) are reliably interpreted as a treatment response. Gross pathology changes are only indicative and not diagnostic of endocrine interactions making it difficult to distinguish gross pathology abnormalities, due to endocrine-mediated effects, from systemic toxicity. This work d...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Related Links:

CONCLUSIONS: A historical anchor for vaccination rates and ILI is provided in a large cohort of college students following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Influenza immunization locations were determined, as was self-reported obstacles to receiving vaccinations. These are important results for public health leaders seeking to increase vaccination rates during future influenza seasons. PMID: 32074350 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
Irises isolated from the eyes of diverse species constrict when exposed to light. Depending on species this intrinsic photomechanical transduction response (PMTR) requires either melanopsin or cryptochrome (CRY) photopigment proteins, generated by their respective association with retinoid or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) chromophores. Although developmentally relevant circadian rhythms are also synchronized and reset by these same proteins, the cell type, mechanism, and specificity of photomechanical transduction (PMT) and its relationship to circadian processes remain poorly understood. Here we show that PMTRs consis...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Authors: Al-Mnaser AA, Woodward MJ Abstract In vitro studies aimed at studying the mechanism of action of carvacrol and oregano as natural anti-bacterial agents to control multiple antibiotic-resistant avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain O23:H52 isolated from chicken were performed. Derivatives with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to the phytochemicals were selected after growing Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain O23:H52 at sub-lethal concentrations of carvacrol and oregano for a period of 60 days. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of two derivatives revealed a missense mutation in cadC an...
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research
Current influenza vaccines only confer protection against homologous viruses. We synthesized pulmonary surfactant (PS)–biomimetic liposomes encapsulating 2',3'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), an agonist of the interferon gene inducer STING (stimulator of interferon genes). The adjuvant (PS-GAMP) vigorously augmented influenza vaccine–induced humoral and CD8+ T cell immune responses in mice by simulating the early phase of viral infection without concomitant excess inflammation. Two days after intranasal immunization with PS-GAMP–adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine, strong cross-p...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Immunology, Microbiology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of avian-origin mcr-1-harbouring Escherichia coli in Shandong Province, China. During 2017—2018, a total of 668 non-duplicate E. coli isolates were separately collected from 8eight large intensive poultry farms in Shandong Province. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 10 antimicrobial agents commonly used in farms was performed on all E. coli isolates by the agar dilution method; the mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) gene was screened by PCR, and mcr-1 positive isolates were PCR-screened for antimicrobial resistance genes and ty...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that causes deadly T-cell lymphomas and serves as a natural virus-induced tumor model in chickens. Although Marek's disease (MD) is well controlled by current vaccines, the evolution of MDV field viruses towards increasing virulence is concerning as a better vaccine to combat very virulent plus MDV is still lacking. Our understanding of molecular and cellular immunity to MDV and its immunopathogenesis has significantly improved, but those findings about cellular immunity to MDV are largely out-of-date, hampering the development of more eff...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
The emergence of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Wenshan City, southwestern China in 2017. The study describes the epidemiological and virological features of the outbreak an...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Culiseta longiareolata is a cosmopolitan species and has implicated in the transmission of avian malaria, tularemia, and arboviruses. Despite the wide distribution of Cs. longiareolata in Iran, little is known ab...
Source: BMC Research Notes - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Research note Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global HealthAuthor(s): Krishna Prasad Acharya, Niran Adhikari, Muhammad TariqAbstractThe agro-climatic conditions, socio-economic situation, poor sanitation, low hygiene and health standards in Nepal are major contributing factors to the emergence of scrub typhus in Nepal. These outbreaks, along with poor diagnostic facilities, can lead to severe economic losses in a resource-limited country like Nepal. Diseases like avian influenza, leptospirosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis and rabies, that cause heavy socio-economic burden, have received...
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
e;n P Abstract Aging is typically associated with a decline in whole animal performance that ultimately contributes to death. It is suspected that a decline in ATP production leads to dysfunction in cellular processes, contributing to the decline in performance. Birds require large amounts of ATP to support physiological process, especially flight, which is one of the most energetically expensive forms of locomotion in the animal kingdom to sustain. Since the bulk of ATP production is coordinated through mitochondrial activity, we set out to explore mitochondrial function in young (~8 months) and old (~73 mont...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research
More News: Bird Flu | Chemistry | Drugs & Pharmacology | History of Medicine | Pathology | Reproduction Medicine | Statistics | Study | Toxicology