Beat-to-beat patterning of sinus rhythm reveals nonlinear rhythm in the dog compared to the human

The human and dog have sinus arrhythmia; however, the beat-to-beat interval changes were hypothesized to be different. Geometric analyses (R-R interval tachograms, dynamic Poincaré plots) to examine rate changes on a beat-to-beat basis were analyzed along with time and frequency domain heart rate variability from 40 human and 130 canine 24-hour electrocardiographic recordings. Humans had bell-shaped beat-interval distributions, narrow interval bands across time with continuous interval change and linear changes in rate. In contrast, dogs had skewed nonsingular beat distributions, wide interval bands {despite faster average heart rate of dogs [mean (range); 81 (64-119) bpm compared to humans (74.5 (59-103) p = .005]} with regions displaying a paucity of intervals (zone of avoidance) and linear plus nonlinear rate changes. In the dog, dynamic Poincaré plots showed linear rate changes as intervals prolonged until a point of divergence from the line of identity at a mean interval of 598.5 (95% CI: 583.5 to 613.5) ms (bifurcation interval). The dog had bimodal beat distribution during sleep with slower rates and greater variability than during active hours that showed singular interval distributions, higher rates and less variability. During sleep, Poincaré plots of the dog had clustered or branched patterns of intervals. A slower rate supported greater parasympathetic modulation with a branched compared to the clustered distribution. Treatment with atropine e...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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The human and dog have sinus arrhythmia; however, the beat-to-beat interval changes were hypothesized to be different. Geometric analyses (R–R interval tachograms, dynamic Poincaré plots) to examine rate changes on a beat-to-beat basis were analyzed along with time and frequency domain heart rate variability from 40 human and 130 canine 24-h electrocardiographic recordings. Humans had bell-shaped beat-interval distributions, narrow interval bands across time with continuous interval change and linear changes in rate. In contrast, dogs had skewed non-singular beat distributions, wide interval bands {despite fas...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
The objective of the present study was to investigate the immediate and delayed effects of moderate, clinically-relevant HB on cardiorespiratory control in preterm lambs. Two groups of five preterm lambs, namely control and HB, were studied. At day five of life, moderate HB (150–250 μmol/L) was induced and maintained during 17 h in the HB group while control lambs received a placebo solution. Six hours after HB onset, 7-h polysomnographic recordings with electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiratory (RESP) signals were performed to assess the immediate effects of HB on heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate vari...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Alterations in Maternal–Fetal Heart Rate Coupling Strength and Directions in Abnormal Fetuses Ahsan H. Khandoker1*, Steffen Schulz2, Haitham M. Al-Angari1, Andreas Voss2 and Yoshitaka Kimura3,4 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Healthcare Engineering Innovation Center, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 2Institute of Innovative Health Technologies IGHT, Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule, Jena, Germany 3Institute of International Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tohoku Universi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Sara AlMarabeh, Mohammed H. Abdulla and Ken D. O'Halloran* Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Renal sensory nerves are important in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and blood pressure. Activation of renal mechanoreceptor afferents triggers a negative feedback reno-renal reflex that leads to the inhibition of sympathetic nervous outflow. Conversely, activation of renal chemoreceptor afferents elicits reflex sympathoexcitation. Dysregulation of reno-renal reflexes by suppression of the inhibitory refle...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
AbstractEnvironmental noise is a well ‐recognized health risk and part of the external exposome—the World Health Organization estimates that 1 million healthy life years are lost annually in Western Europe alone due to noise‐related complications, including increased incidence of hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Previous data suggest that noise works through two paired pathways in a proposed reaction model for noise exposure. As a nonspecific stressor, chronic low‐level noise exposure can cause a disruption of sleep and communication leading to annoyance and subsequent sympathetic...
Source: BioFactors - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
(Elsevier) Fetal exposure to tobacco smoke in utero is associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and cardiac arrhythmias in newborns. In a novel study in rabbits, investigators provide the first evidence linking fetal exposure to nicotine to long-term alterations of the cardiac sodium current. These changes may impair adaptation of the cardiac sodium current to sympathetic tone and prevent awakening from sleep apnea, leading to arrhythmias that could potentially be involved in SIDS. They report their findings in HeartRhythm
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
In conclusion, there are several biological pathways linking OSA and increased cardiac arrhythmogenesis propensity. However, the independent association is derived from observational studies and the direction of the association still needs clarification due to the lack of large clinical trials. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence linking OSA to cardiac rhythm disorders and point out future directions. PMID: 30687538 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a systemic disease that is due to a narrow upper airway that collapses and obstructs during sleep, which results in frequent nocturnal hypoxemia, sympathetic overdrive, tachycardia, nocturnal hypertension, and oxidative metabolic stress. Symptoms include unrefreshed sleep, daytime tiredness, loss of memory, irritability, lack of concentration, poor work productivity, poor quality of life (QOL), mood swings, and even depression. This upper airway disorder can lead to systemic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular events, myocardial infarct, and fatal arrhythm...
Source: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The autonomic nervous system has a significant role in the milieu predisposing to the triggers, perpetuators and substrate for atrial fibrillation. It has direct electrophysiological effects and causes alterations in atrial structure. In a significant portion of patients with atrial fibrillation, the autonomic nervous system activity is likely a composite of reflex excitation due to atrial fibrillation itself and contribution of concomitant risk factors such as hypertension, obesity and sleep-disordered breathing.
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is defined by repetitive episodes of obstructive respiratory events, characterised by marked reduction (hypopnoea) or cessation of respiration (apnoea) due to upper airway obstruction during sleep. Each respiratory event leads to episodes of asphyxia and progressive but futile generation of excessive negative intrathoracic pressure. The patient is typically self-rescued by an arousal from sleep that leads to opening of the airway and resumption of breathing [1]. OSA is common in the general population across the whole human life span from infants to the elderly [2]. There is good evidence bui...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Editorials Source Type: research
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