Emerging drugs for the treatment of vitiligo.

This study comprehensively summarises the current concepts in the pathogenesis of vitiligo with special focus on the cytokine and signalling pathways, which are the targets for newer drugs. JAK kinase signalling pathways and the cytokines involved are the focus of vitiligo treatment in current research, followed by antioxidant mechanisms and repigmenting mechanisms. Topical immunosuppressants may be an alternative to steroids in localised vitiligo. Newer repigmenting agents like basic fibroblast growth factors, afamelanotide have been included and a special emphasis is laid on the upcoming targeted immunotherapy.Expert opinion: The treatment of vitiligo needs to be multimodal with emphasis on targeting different limbs of the pathogenesis. Topical and oral JAK inhibitors are the most promising new class of drugs currently available for treating vitiligo and acts best in conjunction with NB-UVB. PMID: 31958256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Emerg Drugs Source Type: research

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Immunotherapy, Ahead of Print.
Source: Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells are increasingly associated with the outcomes of health and disease. TRM cells can mediate local immune protection against infections and cancer, which has led to interest in TRM cells as targets for vaccination and immunotherapies. However, these cells have also been implicated in mediating detrimental pro-inflammatory responses in autoimmune skin diseases such as psoriasis, alopecia areata, and vitiligo. Here, we summarize the biology of TRM cells established in animal models and in translational human studies. We review the beneficial effects of TRM cells in mediati...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Immunology - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Immunol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Pathological complete response with nivolumab in metastatic renal cell carcinoma is rare. This case further highlights the potentially predictive role of immune-related adverse events during nivolumab therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and raises questions concerning the role of nephrectomy after immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Further studies are needed to better identify predictive factors for treatment response to immunotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, and to better understand the role of nephrectomy after nivolumab treatment.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We present a 48-year-old woman affected by metastatic uveal melanoma treated with nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks). The patient had no previous history of autoimmune disease or dermatologic conditions. At the fourth month of treatment, on cutaneous examination, she presented multiple whitish vitiligo-like patches on the trunk, axillae, hands and face. Diagnosis of melanoma-associated leukoderma vitiliginous reaction was made. Over the following months, the melanoma-associated leukoderma lesions slowly progressed with cigarette paper-like appearance and indurated texture. A skin biopsy leaded the diagnosis of extragenital ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
ConclusionsImmunosuppression resulted in clinical remission of each irAE, highlighting the importance of vigilance for autoimmune complications in patients treated with checkpoint inhibition, even after immunotherapy cessation.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our meta-analysis concluded that anti PD-1/PD-L1 drugs have different dermatological and mucosal safety profile compared to conventional therapy, and differences of dermatological toxicity between PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitor warrant further investigation.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Source Type: research
Hui Zhou, Xiaoyan Fu, Qian Li and Ting Niu* Department of Hematology and Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy with monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), including nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has demonstrated powerful clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers. However, there is no evidence-based systematic review on the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody in treating lymphoma. Methods: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab/pembrolizumab, we analyzed clin...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Roser Calvo* Patient Safety, Safety Science, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Gaithersburg, MD, United States Immune-related hematological adverse events are amongst the rare but potentially life-threatening complications of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The spectrum of these toxicities is broadening as the number of patients exposed to these agents is increasing. Yet, they are still relatively unknown to many clinicians, possibly due to a lack of specific diagnostic criteria, which poses a challenge for their recognition and proper reporting, and partly due to their low incidence, often too low to be noted in most c...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, this case report suggests that a major regression of multiple nevi on ipilimumab might be associated with immunotherapy response.
Source: Melanoma Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research
Nivolumab is a programmed cell death (PD)-1 ligand inhibitor used in treatment of melanoma and other malignancies. Immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) affect nearly all organ systems, most commonly the skin, the gastrointestinal tract (enterocolitis), the liver (hepatitis), and the endocrine system. Skin reactions related to immunotherapy occur in 4-27% of patients, including lichenoid mucocutaneous eruptions, vitiligo, psoriasis, lichen planus, and bullous pemphigoid. Most recently, genital lichen sclerosus (LS) and relapse of morphea have been reported.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Pigmentation and Melanoma Source Type: research
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