ANTXR1 Regulation of Cancer Stem Cells
Cancer stem-like cells are thought to contribute to tumor recurrence. The anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) has been identified as a functional biomarker of normal stem cells and breast cancer stem-like cells. Primary stem cell-enriched basal cells (CD49f+/EpCAM−/Lin−) expressed higher levels of ANTXR1 compared with mature luminal cells. CD49f+/EpCAM−, CD44+/EpCAM−, CD44+/CD24−, or ALDEFLUOR-positive subpopulations of breast cancer cells were enriched for ANTXR1 expression. CD44+/CD24−/ANTXR1+ cells displayed enhanced self-renewal as measured by mammosphere assay compared with CD44+/CD24−/ANTXR1− cells. Activation of ANTXR1 by its natural ligand C5A, a fragment of collagen VI α3, increased stem cell self-renewal in mammosphere assays and Wnt signaling including the expression of the Wnt receptor–lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), phosphorylation of GSK3α/β, and elevated expression of Wnt target genes. RNAi-mediated silencing of ANTXR1 enhanced the expression of luminal-enriched genes but diminished Wnt signaling including reduced LRP6 and ZEB1 expression, self-renewal, invasion, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. ANTXR1 silencing also reduced the expression of HSPA1A, which is overexpressed in metastatic breast cancer stem cells. Analysis of public databases revealed ANTXR1 amplification in medullary breast carcinoma and overexpression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers with the worst ou...
What impact do antibiotic-related changes of the gut microbiome have on efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors?Annals of Oncology
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Men with early stage prostate cancer did not show benefits from a vegetable-rich diet.
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Publication date: Available online 19 January 2020Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Caiyu Lei, Xiangyi Tang, He Li, Hualei Chen, Shujuan YuAbstractThe grape seed extract (GSE) hybridized with medium-chain saturated fatty acids (decanoic acid) exhibited higher lipophilicity, antioxidant activity, and anti-proliferative activity than its parents. The chemical structures of individual hybridized GSE derivatives were identified as 3'-O-decanoyl catechin, 3′-O-decanoyl epicatechin, 3', 5'-2-O-decanoyl epigallocatechin, and 3', 4', 3'', 5''-4-O-decanoyl epicatechin gallate by HPLC-MS2 and 1H and 13C NMR. For gr...
Women whose periods stop before the age of 40 are at greater risk of diabetes, heart disease, strokes, asthma and breast cancer, the study found. The UK menopause average is 51.