New glaucoma test to help prevent blindness

(Flinders University) Researchers have identified 107 genes that increase a person's risk of developing the eye disease glaucoma, and now developed a genetic test to detect those at risk of going blind from it. The research, led by QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute and Flinders University in Australia, has been published today in the international Nature Genetics journal.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Ahmad A, Ahsan H Abstract The review article focuses on free radicals and oxidative stress involved in ophthalmological diseases such as retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma, etc. Oxidative stress is considered as a key factor involved in the pathology of many chronic diseases including ophthalmic complication and inflammatory process. Oxidative stress and inflammation are closely related pathophysiological processes and are simultaneously found in many pathological conditions. The free radicals produced oxidize cellular components such as lipids and phospholipids leading to lipid peroxidation and trigger the o...
Source: Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Tags: J Immunoassay Immunochem Source Type: research
Abstract Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been observed in aqueous humour (AH) of POAG patients, resulting in an increase in the out-flow resistance of the AH. However, the underlining mechanisms remain elusive. Using established in vivo and in vitro POAG models, we demonstrated that water channel Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is down-regulated in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells upon ET-1 exposure, which causes a series of glaucomatous changes, including actin fibre reorganization, collagen production, extracellular matrix dep...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
Glaucoma is a globally unmet medical challenge and the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, which permanently damages the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible blindness. Present therapies target solely at lowering intraocular ocular pressure (IOP), a major risk factor of the disease; however, elevated IOP is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause glaucoma. Glaucomatous RGC and nerve fiber loss also occur in individuals with normal IOP. Recent studies have provided evidence indicating a link between elevated IOP and T cell-mediated autoimmune responses, particularly that are specifi...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This article reviews current theories of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying glaucoma and recent research - with a focus on neuroprotection and current preclinical and clinical studies to improve the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. PMID: 32040976 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Klin Monbl Augenheilkd Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In 82% of the cases the expert's report pointed out a significant global (visual and non-visual) functional limitation (greater than 33%) of their work capacity. In the previous administrative phase of all these cases the recognition fo disability had not been granted. From the results obtained it turns out the importance of an ophthalmologist acting as an expert in this type of demands. PMID: 32035740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmologia - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol Source Type: research
Ocular trauma is a significant cause of blindness worldwide, particularly if is associated with glaucoma. Direct damage from blunt or penetrating trauma, bleeding, inflammation, lens-related problems, orbital and brain vascular pathologies related to trauma, and chemical injuries may increase intraocular pressure and lead to traumatic glaucoma. Treatment may be as simple as eliminating the underlying cause in some conditions, or management can be challenging, depending on the mechanism of damage.
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Major review Source Type: research
Glucocorticoids are a class of anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used to treat various ocular and systemic conditions. Although the pivotal role of glucocorticoids in the treatment of numerous serious inflammatory diseases, their prolonged use may increase intraocular pressure resulting in steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG).We provide a detailed update on SIG as a preventable cause of blindness in the adult and pediatric population and describe its epidemiology, social impact, and risk factors. Furthermore, we explore the propensity of different steroids to increase the intraocular pressure, the role of different routes of ster...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Major review Source Type: research
AbstractGlaucoma is a leading cause of bilateral blindness. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is; e.g. avanafil, sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil) may increase blood flow to the ciliary body, thereby elevating intraocular pressure and increasing the risk of glaucoma. PDE5Is are commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction, as well as benign prostatic hyperplasia (tadalafil) and pulmonary hypertension (sildenafil). Patients receiving PDE5Is require glaucoma education and ongoing screening, especially if they are taking a high dosage of a daily PDE5I or have risk factors for glaucoma (e.g. increased age, African-Am...
Source: Drugs and Therapy Perspectives - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Purpose of review To describe the VISION 2020: The Right to Sight, global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness, the contribution of glaucoma to the magnitude of global blindness and priorities going forward. Recent findings Although the target of the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan (2014–2019) has not been met in terms of 25% reduction in avoidable blindness, there is evidence that the contribution of glaucoma to blindness and vision impairment is reducing. Yet this focus on a threshold of visual acuity by which to measure prevalence underestimates the true burden of glaucoma. Rec...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: GLAUCOMA: Edited by Donald L. Budenz Source Type: research
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