Alzheimer's disease: review of current nanotechnological therapeutic strategies.

Alzheimer's disease: review of current nanotechnological therapeutic strategies. Expert Rev Neurother. 2020 Jan 18;: Authors: Baranowska-Wójcik E, Szwajgier D Abstract Introduction: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative pathology characterised by the presence of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The most important markers in AD pathology include excessive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ42) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) proteins. One of the possible therapeutic strategies entails the elimination of such deposits by inhibiting Aβ aggregation. For years, one of the major problems in the treatment of AD has been the limited ability to deliver drugs to the brain for reasons related to poor solubility, low bioavailability, and the impact of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).Areas covered: In recent years, the authors have observed an increasing scientific interest in nanotechnological solutions as the factors potentially capable of facilitating the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors discuss recent reports regarding the use of nanotechnology in the therapy and treatment of AD.Expert opinion: The current advances in nanotechnology promise a chance to overcome the obstacles posed by said limitations. The size and diversity of nanoparticles in terms of both composition and shape create new possibilities for a variety of therapeutic applications, also in the context of the treatment and diagnostics of neurode...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Neuropsychological testing and MRI remain the most widely used diagnostic tests by DLB specialists. Other tests-particularly indicative biomarkers-are used only selectively. Research is needed to validate existing potential DLB biomarkers, develop new biomarkers, and investigate mechanisms to improve DLB diagnosis. PMID: 33009039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of silent CSVD in the progression from MCI to dementia and if confluent white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) pose a higher risk for progression in the clinical setting. METHODS: Patients with MCI with baseline magnetic resonance imaging and longitudinal follow-up were evaluated. WMH were quantified using visual scoring at baseline (all subjects) and at end of study period (subgroup). Influences of baseline total WMH, baseline confluent WMH, and increase of WMH on progression from MCI to dementia were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients with a mean age of 6...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
Conclusions: Among elderly individuals with AD, sex modified the effects of the APOE ε4 allele on region-specific tau deposition and gray matter volume. FACs had elevated brain region-specific tau PET SUVR and decreased gray matter volume in comparison to NFACs. The study provides a basis for the use of precision medicine in the diagnosis of AD and evaluation of therapeutics using 18F-AV-1451 PET and structural MRI.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and an independent component analysis (ICA) approach to explore changes in functional connectivity (FC) in the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN). Thirty patients with aMCI and 30 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. All the participants underwent an rs-fMRI scan. The brain FC in DMN, ECN, and SN was calculated using the ICA approach. We found that the FC of brain regions in DMN decreased significantly and that of brain regions in ECN increased, which was in accordance with the findings of prev...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The discovery of the glial-lymphatic or glymphatic fluid clearance pathway in the rodent brain led researchers to search for a parallel system in humans and to question the implications of this pathway in neurodegenerative diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed that several features of the glymphatic system may be present in humans. In both rodents and humans, this pathway promotes the exchange of interstitial fluid (ISF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the arterial perivascular spaces into the brain parenchyma. This process is facilitated in part by aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels located primarily ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Aging was associated with the development of H-EPVS in non-dementic elderly population. Memory function was found to be associated with MTA but not with the degree of H-EPVS.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the addition of regional quantitative MRI data enhances the screening ability of subjective memory complaints and informant-reports of cognitive decline for MCI and dementia. PMID: 32933240 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychiatry Investigation - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatry Investig Source Type: research
This study quantitatively characterizes cognitive decline rates in MCI and tests whether volumetric data from baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can predict accelerated cognitive decline. METHODS: The authors retrospectively examined Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data to obtain serial Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) scores, diagnoses, and the following baseline MRI volumes: total intracranial volume, whole-brain and ventricular volumes, and volumes of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, fusiform gyrus, and medial temporal lobe. Subjects with
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
Abstract Functional connectivity network (FCN) analysis is an effective technique for modeling human brain patterns and diagnosing neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its early stage, Mild Cognitive Impairment. However, accurately estimating biologically meaningful and discriminative FCNs remains challenging due to the poor quality of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and our limited understanding of the human brain. Inspired by the inter-similarity nature of FCNs, similar regions of interest tend to share similar connection patterns. Here, we propose a functional brain netw...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we used vessel size imaging to investigate the specific microvascular changes and most susceptible brain regions during AD progression in an amyloid precursor protein 23 (APP23) transgenic AD mouse model. Using 9.4 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the values of microvascular density (Density), mean vessel diameter (mVD), and vessel size index (VSI) were compared between APP23 and wild-type (WT) mice at 3, 6, 9, 14, and 20 months of age. Our results demonstrate that in 20-month old APP23 and WT mice, the Density val...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
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