The Effects of Bariatric Surgery and Endoscopic Bariatric Therapies on GERD: An Update
AbstractPurpose of reviewBariatric surgery and endoluminal bariatric therapies (EBTs) form an increasingly utilized therapeutic approach to treat obese patients but may worsen gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In this updated article, we review the evidence on the effects of bariatric procedures on GERD.FindingsRecent evidence implicates sleeve gastrectomy with the highest rates of de novo GERD and Barrett ’s esophagus (BE), whereas malabsorptive-restrictive procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) were shown to have significantly lower reported rates. The intragastric balloon (IGB) has been associated with increased likelihood of GERD, whereas ins ufficient evidence exists linking endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) to GERD.SummaryGastroesophageal reflux disease may be treated with some bariatric procedures but is often developed de novo as a result of the change in anatomy. Patients set to undergo bariatric surgery may benefit from pre-procedural endoscopy to choose the more suitable therapy. Further studies with objective measurements of GERD post procedure may provide more insight into the effects of bariatric therapies on reflux, especially more novel ones such as ESG.
ConclusionsForegut pathology is common in bariatric patients with subjective symptoms of GERD. Implementing a comprehensive protocol to objectively assess these patients leads to a significant clinical impact on which procedure these patients ultimately undergo.
This study included patients who underwent primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The primary outcome of interest was incisional SSI occurring within 30 days. Surgeries performed in 2015 were used in a derivation cohort and the predictive tool was validated against the 2016 cohort. A forward selection algorithm was used to build a logistic regression model predicting probability of SSI.ResultsA total of 274,187 patients were included with 71.7% being LSG and 28.3% LRYGB. 0.7% of patients had a SSI in which 71.0% had an incisional SSI, and 29.9% had an organ/spa...
AbstractBackgroundType 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the general population, but the relationship between these conditions in candidates for bariatric surgery is uncertain. We compared the prevalence of GERD and the association between GERD symptoms and esophagitis among bariatric candidates with and without T2DM.MethodsCross-sectional study of baseline data from the Oseberg study in Norway. Both groups underwent gastroduodenoscopy and completed validated questionnaires: Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire. Participants wit...
One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is an accepted bariatric and metabolic surgery with certain important complications such as post-operative gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and bile reflux (BR), which are not well addressed in literature.
Conclusion: Environmental factors were found to be the most predominant cause, where the majority of children were found to be leading a sedentary lifestyle, following an unhealthy diet, and skipping meals. The most recurring complications involved psychosocial and behavioral abnormalities, and among the medical consequences, gastroesophageal reflux and obstructive sleep apnea were the most prevalent.
Conclusions: POEM is an equally safe and effective treatment option for both nonobese and obese patients with achalasia in the short-term. Interestingly, POEM does not lead to higher rates of GERD in obese compared with nonobese patients.
ConclusionD-SLEEVE is an effective restrictive procedure, which recreates a functional LES pressure able to control and/or prevent mild GERD at 1-year follow-up.
ConclusionA tailored HIDA scan protocol with addition of a SPECT-CT scan, ingestion of a fatty meal and prolonged scanning duration results in enhanced bile reflux detection in post-bariatric surgical patients.
Conclusions: The LSG was found to cause a reduction in LESP, and an increase in acid reflux causing an extended relaxation time of the LES. This was confirmed by the increase seen in the DeMeester score. PMID: 32117496 [PubMed]