Methods to Investigate the Deformability of RBC During Malaria

Despite a 30% decline in mortality since 2000, malaria still affected 219 million subjects and caused 435,000 deaths in 2017. Red blood cells (RBC) host Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria, of which Plasmodium falciparum is the most pathogenic. The deformability of RBC is markedly modified by invasion and development of P. falciparum. Surface membrane area is potentially impacted by parasite entry and development, the cytoskeleton is modified by parasite proteins and cytosol viscosity is altered by parasite metabolism. RBC hosting mature parasites (second half of the asexual erythrocytic cycle) are abnormally stiff but the main reason for their absence from the circulation is their adherence to endothelial cells, mediated by parasite proteins exposed at the infected-RBC surface. By contrast, the circulation of non-adherent rings and gametocytes, depends predominantly on deformability. Altered deformability of rings and of uninfected-RBC altered by malaria infection is an important determinant of malaria pathogenesis. It also impacts the response to antimalarial therapy. Unlike conventional antimalarials that target mature stages, currently recommended first-line artemisinin derivatives and the emerging spiroindolones act on circulating rings. Methods to investigate the deformability of RBC are therefore critical to understand the clearance of infected- and uninfected-RBC in malaria. Herein, we review the main methods to assess the deformability of P. falciparum infected-R...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The technique used was adequate to guide surveillance actions in the country and allows articulation between local surveillance efforts and other sectors to resolve health problems caused by infectious and parasitic diseases and associated factors. PMID: 32051684 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
The big data movement has led to major advances in our ability to assess vast and complex datasets related to the host and parasite during malaria infection. While host and parasite genomics and transcriptomics are often the focus of many computational efforts in malaria research, metabolomics represents another big data type that has great promise for aiding our understanding of complex host-parasite interactions that lead to the transmission of malaria. Recent analyses of the complement of metabolites present in human blood, skin and breath suggest that host metabolites play a critical role in the transmission cycle of m...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: 11 February 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 6Author(s): Rajan Pandey, Steven Abel, Matthew Boucher, Richard J. Wall, Mohammad Zeeshan, Edward Rea, Aline Freville, Xueqing Maggie Lu, Declan Brady, Emilie Daniel, Rebecca R. Stanway, Sally Wheatley, Gayani Batugedara, Thomas Hollin, Andrew R. Bottrill, Dinesh Gupta, Anthony A. Holder, Karine G. Le Roch, Rita TewariSummaryCondensin is a multi-subunit protein complex regulating chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division. In Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria, cell division is atypical and the role of condensin is uncle...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
In this study, we have demonstrated how PfDsk2 and its recognition by proteasomal receptors differ from the mammalian system. Our crystal structure of unbound PfDsk2 UBL domain at 1.30 Å revealed an additional 310-helix compared to the human homolog, as well as a few significant differences in its putative binding interface with the proteasome receptors, PfRpn10 and PfRpn13. Moreover, the non-binding face of UBL showed a reversal of surface charge compared to HsDsk2 shuttle protein, instead resembling HOIL-like E3 ligase UBL domain. The affinity of the interaction with the proteasomal receptors remained simila...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Ankit Gupta, Kirti Gupta, Saman HabibAbstractThe YihA TRAFAC GTPases are critical for late-stage assembly of the ribosomal large subunit (LSU). In order to explore biogenesis of the reduced organellar ribosomes of the malaria parasite, we identified three nuclear-encoded homologs of YihA in Plasmodium falciparum. PfYihA1 targeted to the parasite apicoplast, PfYihA2 to the mitochondrion, and PfYihA3 was found in both the apicoplast and cytosol. The three PfYihA, expressed as recombinant proteins, were active GTPases a...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
by Ernest Diez Benavente, Monica Campos, Jody Phelan, Debbie Nolder, Jamille G. Dombrowski, Claudio R. F. Marinho, Kanlaya Sriprawat, Aimee R. Taylor, James Watson, Cally Roper, Francois Nosten, Colin J. Sutherland, Susana Campino, Taane G. Clark AlthoughPlasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, they not always prioritised by elimination programmes.P.vivax is resilient and poses challenges through its ability to re-emerge from dormancy in the human liver. With observed growing drug-resistance and the increasing reports of life-threatening infections, new tools to inform...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Passerine birds are frequently infected with diverse haemosporidian parasites. While infections are traditionally considered benign in wild birds, recent studies demonstrated mortalities of passerine species d...
Source: Malaria Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
The malaria elimination plan of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is jeopardized by the increasing number of Plasmodium vivax infections and emergence of parasite strains with reduced susceptibility to the front...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur study confirmed thatP. falciparum is the dominant species in the sahelian zone and that malaria transmission is seasonal and associated with rainfall in this zone. The application of the current national policy based on rapid and reliable malaria diagnosis, case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy, intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women, distribution and use of long-lasting insecticide impregnated bed nets, and the planned introduction of seasonal malaria chemoprevention for all children under 6  years old is expected to sustainably reduce malaria transmission in this zone.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Biological rhythms appear to be an elegant solution to the challenge of coordinating activities with the consequences of the Earth's daily and seasonal rotation. The genes and molecular mechanisms underpinning circadian clocks in multicellular organisms are well understood. In contrast, the regulatory mechanisms and fitness consequences of biological rhythms exhibited by parasites remain mysterious. Here, we explore how periodicity in parasite traits is generated and why daily rhythms matter for parasite fitness. We focus on malaria (Plasmodium) parasites which exhibit developmental rhythms during replica...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research
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