Nausea and Vomiting: a Palliative Care Imperative

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review was undertaken to survey recent literature for research reports and comprehensive clinical reviews addressing the pharmacologic management of nausea and vomiting (N&V) in advanced cancer. The goal was to integrate findings in a comprehensive article that incorporates palliative care concepts into antiemetic treatment.Recent FindingsThere are few published studies of N&V in advanced cancer; such research may be limited by the multicausal nature of N&V and participant burden to patients with life-limiting disease. Most articles are written by oncologists who also specialize in palliative care, and those addressing adverse effects of drugs used as antiemetics are found in other literature. Articles addressing more novel therapies, like cannabinoids and medical marijuana, are uncommon in the oncology literature.SummaryN&V in patients with progressive or advanced cancer is often multicausal. Nausea is more common and persistent, and even mild nausea is bothersome and may cause anxiety or depression. The mechanisms of nausea and vomiting overlap, but different neural pathways constitute the final pathway for each —the brainstem for vomiting and higher brain regions for nausea. Common causes of N&V in advanced cancer include constipation, opioids, and malignant bowel obstruction. About 40% have undetermined causes and may be exacerbated by impaired gastric emptying, chemical imbalances, or other factors. Several drugs that have antiemetic e...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Authors: Gaudiano BA, Davis CH, Miller IW, Uebelacker L Abstract A common setting where depression is identified and treated is in primary care, where there is a need for low-intensity and cost-effective interventions to be used as part of a stepped-care model. The current study involved a pilot, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of a video self-help intervention for primary care patients based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The intervention, called LifeStories, consisted of storytelling vignettes of patients describing their use of ACT-consistent coping skills for depression. Primary care pa...
Source: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Clin Psychol Psychother Source Type: research
AbstractThree BODIPY ‐peptide conjugates designed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the extracellular domain were synthesized and their specificity for binding to EGFR was investigated. Peptide sequences containing seven amino acids, GLARLLT (2) and KLARLLT (3), and 13 amino acids, GYHWYGYTPQNVI (4), were conjugated to carboxyl BODIPY dye (1) by amide bond formation in up to 73% yields. The BODIPY ‐peptide conjugates and their “parent” peptides were determined to bind to EGFR experimentally using SPR analysis, and were further investigated using computational methods (AUTODOCK). Resul...
Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology - Category: Science Authors: Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Contributors : Samuel Jacques ; Almer M van der Sloot ; Caroline Huard ; Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington ; Sarah Tsao ; Sylvain Tollis ; Thierry Bertomeu ; Elizabeth J Culp ; Daniel Pallant ; Michael A Cook ; Eric Bonneil ; Pierre Thibault ; Gerard D Wright ; Michael TyersSeries Type : OtherOrganism : Homo sapiensSystematic genetic interaction profiles can reveal the mechanism-of-action of bioactivecompounds. The imipridone ONC201, which is currently in cancer clinical trials, has beenascribed a variety of different targets. To investigate the genetic dependencies of imipridoneaction, we screened a genome-wide CRISPR knockout l...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Other Homo sapiens Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We found DEGs and DEMs in FM patients through bioinformatics analysis, which may be involved in the occurrence and development of FM and serve as potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. PMID: 32083545 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
ConclusionThe incidence of defecation disorders in the geriatric population is high and, most notably, anal incontinence is not spontaneously reported by most patients.ResumoIntroduçãoOs distúrbios da evacuação, seja a incontinência anal ou a constipação intestinal crônica, representam alterações do assoalho pélvico bastante frequente na população em geral e mais comumente naqueles com fatores de risco, ou seja, em idosos, mulheres com passado obstétrico, comorbidades, antecedente de radioterapia pélvica, diab&eacu...
Source: Journal of Coloproctology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionCompounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 showed anti-prostate cancer activities using the LNCaP prostate cancer cells with IC50 values of 17.84, 33.26, 54.13, and 81.55 μg/mL, and compounds 3, 4, 8, and 9 exhibited moderate hepatoprotective activities, respectively. A preliminary structure-activity relation was summarized in this paper.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Authors: Gholami A, Mousavi SM, Hashemi SA, Ghasemi Y, Chiang WH, Parvin N Abstract Nowadays, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been rapidly investigated and attracted worldwide attention due to their great potential as mediators of heat for treating hyperthermia and their possibility to deliver drugs at specific locations, which can thereby limit systematic effects. Cancer therapy via MNPs proposes novel properties rather than normal methods such as almost zero side effects and a high-efficiency rate of effectiveness. The key aim of targeted drug delivery is to reduce side effects of the main cancer treatment tha...
Source: Drug Metabolism Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Metab Rev Source Type: research
In this study we tried to explore Diazepam as a repurposed drug and tested it in Neuroblastoma (Neuro 2a) cells. Diazepam loaded Poly Lactic Acid Nanoparticles were developed (D-PLA-NPs) using nanoprecipitation method. Entrapment efficiency was found to be ± 99.7% and drug loading was ± 12.88%. The particle size developed was 188.8 nm and zeta potential was −25.6 millivolt. Dissolution profiles were studied in PBS (pH 7.4) or simulated media, almost 50% release was observed within 6 h. In vitro, cytotoxicity was analyzed using MTT assay where dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed for developed D-PLA-NPs.
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Journal of Psychiatric ResearchAuthor(s): Brian W. Bauer, Anna R. Gai, Mary E. Duffy, Megan L. Rogers, Lauren R. Khazem, Rachel L. Martin, Thomas E. Joiner, Daniel W. CapronAbstractModern theories of suicide, such as the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, have overcome past conceptual limitations within suicide research by examining factors that help differentiate suicide attempters from those who experience suicidal ideation, but never attempt suicide. One such factor that has been studied extensively is fearlessness about death. Given the varying levels of lethalit...
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
DiscussionPsychotherapy of SAD should consider patient’s attachment and focus on the establishment of a solid therapeutic alliance in an early therapy stage.
Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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