The effects of carbohydrate structure on the composition and functionality of the human gut microbiota

Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Trends in Food Science &TechnologyAuthor(s): L. Payling, K. Fraser, S.M. Loveday, I. Sims, N. Roy, W. McNabbAbstractBackgroundHuman health depends on a population of microorganisms that inhabit the gut and contribute to homeostasis of the host, including nutrition, immunity and metabolism. Many of the organisms are interactive and mutually dependent, where the end-products for one organism become the fuel for another through substrate and metabolic cross-feeding. To optimise the gut microbiota using diet, the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, including these interacting networks, must be understood. Microbial composition and functionality is affected by the structure of the energy input, which is primarily dietary fibre for the gut microbiota. The structure of dietary fibre has been reviewed by carbohydrate chemists, but knowledge of how dietary fibre structure affects the gut microbiota is limited.Scope and approachThe hierarchical structures of dietary fibre are reviewed, encompassing macrostructure, mesostructure and molecular structure, and how they are affected by food processing and digestion. These factors are considered in relation to their affects on microbial composition and functionality, to provide insight on the interactions between diet, the microbiota, and human health.Key findings and conclusionsFood processing and digestion affect food structure, primarily through the removal of ...
Source: Trends in Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research

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