Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 123: Multi-Approach Investigation Regarding the West Nile Virus Situation in Hungary, 2018

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 123: Multi-Approach Investigation Regarding the West Nile Virus Situation in Hungary, 2018 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12010123 Authors: Brigitta Zana Károly Erdélyi Anna Nagy Eszter Mezei Orsolya Nagy Mária Takács Tamás Bakonyi Petra Forgách Orsolya Korbacska-Kutasi Orsolya Fehér Péter Malik Krisztina Ursu Péter Kertész Anett Kepner Máté Martina Tamás Süli Zsófia Lanszki Gábor Endre Tóth Anett Kuczmog Balázs Somogyi Ferenc Jakab Gábor Kemenesi The West Nile virus is endemic in multiple European countries and responsible for several epidemics throughout the European region. Its evolution into local or even widespread epidemics is driven by multiple factors from genetic diversification of the virus to environmental conditions. The year of 2018 was characterized by an extraordinary increase in human and animal cases in the Central-Eastern European region, including Hungary. In a collaborative effort, we summarized and analyzed the genetic and serologic data of WNV infections from multiple Hungarian public health institutions, universities, and private organizations. We compared human and veterinary serologic data, along with NS5 and NS3 gene sequence data through 2018. Wild birds were excellent indicator species for WNV circulation in each year. Our efforts resulted in documenting t...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Michael W. Gaunt, Duane J. Gubler, John H.-O. Pettersson, Goro Kuno, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Xavier de Lamballerie, Ernest A. Gould, Andrew K. FalconarAbstractSporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-bor...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Sporadic human Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been recorded in Africa and Asia since the 1950s. Major epidemics occurred only after ZIKV emerged in the Pacific islands and spread to the Americas. Specific biological determinants of the explosive epidemic nature of ZIKV have not been identified. Phylogenetic studies revealed incongruence in ZIKV placement in relation to Aedes-borne dengue viruses (DENV) and Culex-borne flaviviruses. We hypothesized that this incongruence reflects interspecies recombination resulting in ZIKV evasion of cross-protective T-cell immunity. We investigated ZIKV phylogenetic i...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract There are currently over 80 species of mosquito endemic in Canada-although only a few of these carry pathogens that can cause disease in humans. West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus and the California serogroup viruses (including the Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses) are mosquito-borne viruses that have been found to cause human infections in North America, including in Canada. Over the last 20 years, the incidence of most of these endemic mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) has increased approximately 10% in Canada, due in large part to climate change. It is anticipated that both the mo...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Global climate change, driven by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, is being particularly felt in Canada, with warming generally greater than in the rest of the world. Continued warming will be accompanied by changes in precipitation, which will vary across the country and seasons, and by increasing climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change will likely drive the emergence of infectious diseases in Canada by northward spread from the United States and introduction from elsewhere in the world via air and sea transport. Diseases endemic to Canada are also likely to re-emerge. This s...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research
by Sifat A. Moon, Lee W. Cohnstaedt, D. Scott McVey, Caterina M. Scoglio West Nile virus (WNV)—a mosquito-borne arbovirus—entered the USA through New York City in 1999 and spread to the contiguous USA within three years while transitioning from epidemic outbreaks to endemic transmission. The virus is transmitted by vector competent mosquitoes and maintained in the avian populations. WNV spatial distribution is mainly determined by the movement of residential and migratory avian populations. We developed an individual-level heterogeneous network framework across the USA with the goal of understanding the long-r...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
West Nile virus (WNV) is endemic in southeastern Romania and, after the unprecedented urban epidemic in Bucharest in 1996 caused by lineage 1 WNV, cases of West Nile fever have been recorded every year. Furthe...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Vectorborne diseases are a large and growing public health problem in the United States, characterized by geographic specificity and frequent pathogen emergence and introduction. Differences in distribution and transmission dynamics of tickborne and mosquitoborne diseases are often rooted in biologic differences of the vectors. To effectively reduce transmission and respond to outbreaks will require major national improvement of surveillance, diagnostics, reporting, and vector control, as well as new tools, including vaccines. PMID: 29723166 [PubMed - in process]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
In the summer of 2016, Jerome Goddard, a medical entomologist in Mississippi, received an email from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with a desperate ask. The agency was conducting an “urgent” search for insect scientists around the U.S. who could take up to a six-month paid leave from work to help the CDC fight the Zika outbreak in the U.S., and possibly respond to areas with local transmission if needed. “That’s how bad it is—they need to borrow someone,” says Goddard, an extension professor of medical entomology at Mississippi State University. “We can&...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized healthytime public health Source Type: news
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