Integrated 16S rRNA Sequencing, Metagenomics, and Metabolomics to Characterize Gut Microbial Composition, Function, and Fecal Metabolic Phenotype in Non-obese Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in the world. Recent studies have shown that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota may be an important contributor to T2DM pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the roles of the gut microbiome and fecal metabolome in T2DM have not been characterized. Recently, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat model of T2DM was developed to study the clinical symptoms and characteristics of human T2DM. To further characterize T2DM pathogenesis, we combined multi-omics techniques, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomic sequencing, and metabolomics, to analyze gut microbial compositions and functions, and further characterize fecal metabolomic profiles in GK rats. Our results showed that gut microbial compositions were significantly altered in GK rats, as evidenced by reduced microbial diversity, altered microbial taxa distribution, and alterations in the interaction network of the gut microbiome. Functional analysis based on the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations suggested that 5 functional COG categories belonged to the metabolism cluster and 33 KEGG pathways related to metabolic pathways were significantly enriched in GK rats. Metabolomics profiling identified 53 significantly differentially abundant metabolites in GK rats, including lipids and lipid-like molecules. These lipids were enriched in the glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway. Moreo...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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