Co-circulation of Toscana virus and Leishmania infantum in a focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis from Central Tunisia.

In this study, we aimed to investigate phlebovirus and Leishmania parasites circulating in a focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) located in a highly irrigated area within the arid Central Tunisia, known mainly to be endemic for zoonotic cutaenous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused Leishmania major and transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps in the village of Saddaguia, an emergent focus of ZVL located in Central Tunisia during September-October 2014, 2015, and 2016. Pools of live female sand flies were screened for phleboviruses and Leishmania by nested PCR in the polymerase gene and kinetoplast minicircle DNA, respectively. Dead sand flies were identified morphologically to species level. Sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius mainly Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis were predominant in this ZVL focus compared to P. papatasi. A total of 1932, 1740, and 444 sand flies were tested in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively. Pathogen screening performed on 4116 sand flies distributed in 148 pools revealed the presence of Leishmania infantum and Toscana virus. The minimum infection rates of sand flies with TOSV in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were 0.05%, 011%, and 0.22%, respectively. The minimum infection rates of sand flies with L. infantum in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were 0.25%, 012%, and 0.79%, respectively. No L. major was detected during the 3-years investigation in this ZVL focus. Our results showed ...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

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AbstractWith sand flies as the main vectors,Leishmania species cause ancient zoonotic diseases called leishmaniasis. Iran is an endemic country regarding cutaneous leishmaniasis. A number of 100 smear slides were collected from cutaneous lesions referred to Ahvaz health centers. The DNA was extracted and ITS1 –PCR using LITSR and L5.8S primer pair was performed to detect the genusLeishmania. Then, enzymatic digestion of PCR products was done byHaeIII (species detection),TaqI (strain detection),DpnI andHpaII (mutation assessment). Furthermore, 50 samples were sent for sequencing. Microscopic examination showed amastig...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study demonstrated the natural infection of H. auritus with L. major for the first time in Damghan City and introduced these mammals as new potential reservoirs of ZCL in the study area. PMID: 31879672 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Arthropod Borne Dis Source Type: research
Authors: Gabriel Á, Valério-Bolas A, Palma-Marques J, Mourata-Gonçalves P, Ruas P, Dias-Guerreiro T, Santos-Gomes G Abstract This review is aimed at providing a comprehensive outline of the immune response displayed against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the more common zoonotic infection caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Although of polymorphic clinical presentation, classically CL is characterized by leishmaniotic lesions on the face and extremities of the patients, which can be ulcerative, and even after healing can lead to permanent injuries and disfigurement, affecting ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): Ana Vitória Verde Oliveira Rocha, Brenda Fernanda Sodré Moreno, Aline Diniz Cabral, Nayara Mendes Louzeiro, Leandro Macedo Miranda, Vivian Magalhães Brandão dos Santos, Francisco Borges Costa, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira, Arlei Marcili, Márcia Aparecida Sperança, Andréa Pereira da CostaAbstractVisceral leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum for which dogs are the main reservoir. In South America, presence of this disease is expanding along with increasing d...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Authors: Sofizadeh A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Shoraka HR Abstract Background &objectives: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is among the most endemic zoonotic diseases in Golestan Province of Iran. The aim of this study was to find the high risk areas of this infection by considering the distribution of reservoirs and human infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which Rhombomys opimus (Gerbils) were captured from different collection sites across the Golestan Province, Iran. records about the occurrence of Rh. opimus in the Province was obtained from earlier studies and were gathered in ...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research
Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by a flagellated parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. In most cases, it is a zoonotic disease transmitted via a bite by bloodsucking sand-flies of the genus Phlebotomus. The disease reservoirs consist of wild or semi-domesticated animals, generally rodents or dogs. The disease itself is distributed extensively worldwide in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Africa. Epidemiology is affected by environmental, migratory and climatic factors. Identification of the different types of leishmaniasis is based chiefly on the biochemical characteristics (is...
Source: Annales de Dermatologie et de Cenereologie - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Ann Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to review the spatial distribution of canine VL (CVL) caused by Leishmania infantum in domestic and wild canines in different geographical areas of Iran. An extensive literature search was conducted in different international and national databases, including Cochrane, MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Iran Medex to find articles with the words "visceral leishmaniasis in Iran" in their titles and "canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran" or "feline visceral leishmaniasis in Iran" or "accidental reservoir hosts of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran" ...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic parasitic disease, endemic in the Mediterranean basin. In this region, transmission of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of CanL, is through the bite ...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening outcome of Leishmania infantum or Leishmania donovani infection. Dogs are the primary domestic reservoir of L. infantum parasites, and ownership of infected dogs increases the risk of human VL. Controlling infection within dog populations is regarded as critical to VL management in endemic countries, both preventing progression of canine disease and limiting parasite transmission to humans and dogs. Here we discuss various strategies that are used to diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and the possibilities of adapting these for use within populat...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
This study was aimed to investigate the parasite species and genetic diversity of isolates obtained from CL patients based on the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) gene. Methods: Exudate materials were collected from the swollen margin of the skin lesions of the patients suspected with CL who were referred to health centers laboratory of Mehran, Dehloran, Ilam and Malekshahi cities in the Ilam province. Demographic data were collected through a questionnaire. Smears were stained and examined microscopically. In total, 62 parasitologically positive samples were subjected to PCR-RFLP of nagt gene for ide...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research
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