People who cheat on tests accurately predict their performance on future tests
Publication date: April 2020Source: Learning and Instruction, Volume 66Author(s): Monika Undorf, Eric Y. Mah, Dawn-Leah L. McDonald, Zachariah I. Hamzagic, Ryan Burnell, Maryanne Garry, Daniel M. BernsteinAbstractStudies suggest that people who cheat on a test overestimate their performance on future tests. Given that erroneous monitoring of one's own cognitive processes impairs learning and memory, this study investigated whether cheating on a test would harm monitoring accuracy on future tests. Participants had the incentive and opportunity to cheat on one (Experiments 1, 2, and 3, with N = 90, 88, and 102, respectively) or two (Experiment 4, N = 214) of four general-knowledge tests. Cheating produced overconfidence in global-level performance predictions in Experiment 2 (Cohen's d ≥ 0.35) but not in Experiments 1 or 4. Also, cheating did not affect the absolute or relative accuracy of item-level performance predictions in Experiments 3 or 4. A Bayesian meta-analysis of all experiments provided evidence against cheating-induced overconfidence in global- and item-level predictions. Overall, our results demonstrate that people who cheat on tests accurately predict their performance on future tests.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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